Saturday, 7 February 2015

The Letter Quanto per carissimum,

Quanto per carissimum, this is a highly controversial but undated letter from Pope Alexander  to Roger Pont L'Eveque, Archbishop of York granting him permission to crown Henry's II eldest son, prince Henry, as the Young King of England.  It was said to have been obtained by Richard Barre and Reginald FitzJoscelin after their mission on Henry II's behalf as envoys to Pope Alexander and the Papal Curia late 1169/Jan 1170 at Beneventum. Some have argued it was a complete forgery, but that seems unlikely. Others have argued that it was written and sent much earlier; Canon J.C. Robertson in Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, for example, dates it as June 17th 1167.

J.C.Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket. Volume VI, Cambridge University Press. pp. 206–7. ISBN 978-1-108-04930-6.
Epistola CCCX ,June 17th 1167
Letter Pope Alexander III to Roger, Archbishop of York

J. Giles (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis. Volume 2. Epistola 245. pp. 45–.
Quanto per carissimum filium nostrum Henricum illustrem Anglorum regem, ampliora incrementa et commoda in hujus necessitatis articulo ecclesiae Dei provenisse noscuntur, et quanto nos eum pro suae devotionis constantia majori affectione diligimus, et cariorem in nostris visceribus retinemus; tanto ad ea, quae ad honorem, incrementum et exaltationem ipsius et suorum cognoscimus pertinere, libentius et promptius aspiramus. Inde est quod ad ejus petitionem dilectum filium nostrum Henricum primogenitum filium suum, communicato fratrum nostrorum consilio, ex auctoritate beati Petri ac nostra concedimus in Anglia coronandum.
Quoniam igitur hoc ad officium tuum pertinet, fraternitati tuae per apostolica scripta mandamus, quatinus, quum ab eodem filio nostro rege propter hoc fueris requisitus, coronam memorato filio suo ex auctoritate apostolicae sedis imponas. Et nos, quod a te exinde factum fuerit, ratum ac firmum decernimus permanere. Tu vero debitam ei subjectionem et reverentiam, salvo in omnibus patris sui mandato, exhibeas et alios similiter commoneas exhibere.

Translation Hutton (1889) p. 177-8
Since through our dearest son Henry, the illustrious king of the English, great help and favours are known to have come to the Church in this extremity of need, and as we love him with the more affection for the constancy of his affection and hold him dearer to our heart, so do we the more freely an^ eagerly desire all such things as lend to the honour, the profit, and the exaltation of himself and all that is his. Hence it is that, at his request, we by
the authority of the blessed Peter and our own, and by the counsel of our brethren, grant that our dearly loved son Henry, the said king's eldest son, may be crowned in England.

Since therefore this pertaineth to your office we command you by apostolic letter that when you shall be requested by the father our son the king you shall place the crown upon the head of their said son, by the authority of the apostolic See ; and what shall be therein done by you we decree to remain valid and firm. You shall further show to him due subjection and reverence in all things, saving his father's com
mands, and shall admonish others to show
the same.

Philipp Jaffé (1851). Regesta pontificum romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post christum natum 1198Jaffé 7592: Veit. pp. 713–.

Chretien Lupus; Papa Alejandro III; Luis VII (Rey de Francia.); Enrique II (Rey de Inglaterra.), Tommaso Antonio Filippini (1728). Epistolae et vita D. Thomae martyris et Archi-episcopi Cantuariensis: nec non epistolae Alexandri III Pontificis, Galliae regis Ludovici Septimi, Angliae regis Henrici II ... : in lucem productae ex manuscripto Vaticano. Liber 1 Epistola X: prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 71–. App364

Baron George Lyttelton Lyttelton (1769). The history of the life of King Henry the Second, Printed for J. Dodsley. pp. 291–.

Baron George Lyttelton (1769). The history of the life of King Henry the Second,. Volume 4. Printed for J. Dodsley. pp. 283–

Baron George Lyttelton (1769). The history of the life of King Henry the Second,  Printed for J. Dodsley. pp. 498–9.

The authenticity of this letter has been doubted by Roman catholic writers, such as Berington, Henry II,  and  Lingard,

Joseph Berington (1790). The History of the Reign of Henry the Second,  M. Swinney. pp. 217–9.

Joseph Berington (1790). The History of the Reign of Henry the Second,. Appendix II: M. Swinney. pp. 668–.

John Lingard (1823). A History of England from the First Invasion by the Romans, 2: By John Lingard. J. Mawmab. pp. 333–
and his enemies, to remove the scruples of the prelates, exhibited a pretended letter from the pontiff empowering the archbishop of York to crown the prince.
Footnote:  Lord Lyttelton was deceived by this letter: Mr. Berington has shewn that it was a forgery. App. ii.

Robert William Eyton (1878). Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II. Taylor and Company. pp. 134

Epistola Illius dignitatis

Letter from Pope Alexander to the archbishop of York forbidding him to interfere with the rights of the archbishop of Canterbury to crown the Young King.

ed. J.A. Giles (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis. Volume 2. Epistola 244. pp. 45–.

Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei, archiepiscopo Eboracensi et universis Anylia episcopis salutem etapostolicam benedictionem.

Illius dignitatis et majoritatis ecclesiam Cantuariensem ab antiquo fuisse audivimus, ut reges Angliae ab ejusdem ecclesiae archi-episcopis inungi semper consuererint et in promotionis suae principio coronari. Froinde siquidem est quod nos, tum cx officii nostri debito tum consideratione venerabilis fratris nostri Thomaj ejusdem sedis archi-episcopi, viri siquidem religiosi, honesti et discreti, ecclesiae jam dictae jura et dignitates antiquas illibatas ct integras conservare volentes, universitate vestrae auctoritate Apostolica penitus inhibemus ne quisquam vestrum novo regi coronando, si forte hic casus emerserit, absque memorati archi-episcopi vel successorum suorum et ecclesiae Cantuariensis conniventia contra antiquam ejus consuetudinem et dignitatem manum apponere qualibet occasione praesumat, aut id aliquatenus audeat attentare. . Datum Laterani, non. April.


John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas à Becket. Volume 2. Letter 103: Whittaker. pp. 258–.

"Such is the dignity and precedence of the Church of Canterbury from ancient times, as we have heard, that the prelates of that see have always had the privilege of crowning and inaugurating the kings of England in the beginning of their reign. For this cause it is that we, both from a sense of duty, and out of regard to our venerable brother Thomas, archbishop of that see, who is a most religious, honest, and pious man, and wishing to preserve to his Church all her rights and privileges without violation, do hereby forbid all men, by virtue of our apostolical authority, from presuming to crown the young king, if by chance this question should arise, without the consent of the aforesaid archbishop, or his successors, and of the Church of Canterbury, or in any way attempting to impugn or detract from the ancient privileges of that Church.
Given at the Lateran, Nones [Sunday 5th] April 1170

 B. Tierney (11 December 1980). Authority and Power. CUP Archive. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-521-22275-4.

MTB Volume II p.406

Earlier Permissions

Permission from Pope Alexander III for Roger archbishop of York
to have his cross borne before him and to crown the king.

The permission to crown king would include those occasions of "crowning" the king on his crown wearing days, festive coronations, as well full regal coronations.The words coronare regem is ambiguous in this sense.

Both the following letters were sent whilst Becket was still the king's chancellor, and before he was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury on 3 June 1162. The previous archbishop of Canterbury, Theobald of Bec, had died on 18th April 1161, and the post was vacant for two years before Becket filled it. 

James Raine (15 November 2012). The Historians of the Church of York and Its Archbishops. Epistola LIII: Cambridge University Press. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-108-05157-6.

Anagni January 28 1160 [1161]
Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei, venerabili fratri, Rogero Eboracensi archiepiscopo, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Quanto personam tuam  pro tua prudentia et honestate, et pro ea devotione quam circa sacrosanctam Romanam ecclesiam, et circa personam nostram habes sinceriori caritate diligimus, tanto justas postutationes tuas libentius ac facilius exaudimus. Eapropter petitioni tuae gratum impertientes assensum, crucem ante te deferendi, sicut praedecessores nostri Romani pontifices tuis antecessoribus concesserunt, et tu hactenus habuisse dinos ceris, regem etiam coronandi, sicut ex uteris antecessorum nostrorum praedecessoribus tuis concessum est, et ipsi usi fuisse noscuntur, liberam tibi concedimus facultatem. Et ut concessio ipsa rata et  firma in posterum habeatur, earn auctoritate Apostolica roboramus, et praesentis scripti patrocinio communimus, Statuentea ut nulli omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostra concesaionis et confirmationia infringere, vel ei aliquatenua contraire.
Datum Anagniaa, v. kalendaa Februarii.1

Alexander bishop [of Rome], the servant of servants of God to [our] venerable brother Roger archbishop of York greetings and Apostolic blessing.
In recognition of the importance of your person, and your discretion and honour, and for the devotion and regard which you have shown to the most holy Roman church, and our own person, with the clear dearness that we esteem, so much more so easily are we more willing to listen to your just petitions. For that reason we are willing to bestow assent for the bearing of your cross before you,  just as our predecessors, the Roman pontiffs, conceded the same to your predecessors, and also for those matters you are known to have had up to now, even unto the crowning of the king just as your predecessor had learned that they had by documents issued by our predecessors, and if they are known to have been used we herewith grant you free permission to use these. And in order that the concessions themselves are, in posterity, to be considered good and firm, we hereby reinforce them with the authority of the Holy See, and we fortify their confirmation by this present document. Let no man violate these statutes of our concessions,  or contravene them in any way.
Given at Anagni on the fifth day before the Calends of February.

The same letter seems to have been re-issued at Montpellier 13th July 1162
James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket Volume 5. Epistola XIII [MTB 13]: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.

Letter from Henry II to archbishop Theobald

Matthaei Parker Cantuariensis archiepiscopi De antiquitate Britannicae ecclesiae et privilegiis ecclesiae Cantuariensis (1572) p. 195
Matthew Parker; Samuel Drake (1729). De antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae et privilegiis Ecclesiae Cantuariensis . Bowger. pp. 196–.

and also

Raphael Holinshed; John Hooker; Francis Thynne; Abraham Fleming, John Stow, Sir Henry Ellis (1808). Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland ...: England. J. Johnson. pp. 689–.

Henricus rex Angliae & dux Normania & Aquitaniae, & comes Ang. Theobaldo Cant, archiepiscopo salutem. Super hoc quod mihi mandastis, quod audieritis me coronandum ad natale ab archiepiscopo Eborac. apud Lincoln, in provincia vestra, sciatis quod nullo modo me ibi coronabit, nec alibi contra dignitatem vestram. Ibi cnim me coronabit, sicut mandastis, Lincoln, episcopus, si praesentiam vestram habere non potero, quam multuin desideiarem. Sed hac vice parco labort vestro, & cum dominus Lincoln, episcopus possit modo supplere vices vestras, nolo quod ad me veniendo tanto labore vexemini. Et hoc pro certo sciatis, quod nec in his nec in aliis quam diu coronam portabo, vestram offendam gratiam nec divinam dignitatem. Teste T. cancellario nostro, apud Notingham. 

Henry, king of England and Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and the count of Anjou, to Theobald of Canterbury, archbishop, greetings. Upon the fact that you wrote to me about, that you would agree to my being crowned by the archbishop of York [at the ceremony of Crown Wearing] at Christmas in Lincoln, in your province, let it be known that in no way will I be crowned there, and by no one below the dignity of your rank. Indeed it seems there is someone there who will be able to crown me, if you so direct it, namely the bishop of Lincoln, if I cannot have your personal attendance, however much I may desire it. But this time I might be able to spare your labour for our the lord bishop of Lincoln, as a bishop may may be able to take your place, However, I do not want them coming before me in a vexatious situation. And let this be known for certain, I will not wear the crown as long as that might offend your dignity or divine grace in any way.
As witnessed by T[homas Becket], our chancellor, at Nottingham.

Robert William Eyton (1878). Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II:  Taylor and Company. p. 31

25th December 1157
The king was crowned at Wikeford, a suburb of Lincoln

Extract of a Letter sent by John of Salisbury

Letter of John of Salisbury to John Belmeis [John of Canterbury], Treasurer of York
ca November 1157


Si dominus Eboracensis regem coronare vel aliquid aliud adversus Ecclesiam temeritatis instinctu moliri tentaverit in provincia nostra, nolite communicare illi, sed ausum reprimite, quia iniuriarum nostrarum ultor est Dominus ultionum Cantuariensium Deus:


Cullinane, Mary Patricius, "Translations of Letters Sixty-One to One-Hundred Six of John of Salisbury" (1943). Master's Theses. Paper 478.
Letter 80  Page 47
John of Salisbury to John Belmeis, Treasurer of York
If the Lord Archbishop of York attempts to   crown the king or through rash suggestion to undertake anything unusual in opposition to the Church of Canterbury in our province, have nothing to do with it, but check his temerity, because the avenger of our injuries is the Lord of vengeance, the God of the Men of Canterbury

John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres) (1986). The Letters of John of Salisbury: Volume 1 -The early letters (1153-1161) . Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822239-2.
Edited By W. J. Millor; H. E. Butler
Letter 39 John to John of Canterbury, treasurer of York
c. November 1157
If the archbishop of York should attempt to crown the king or harbour any rash design within our province against the church of Canterbury, have nothing to do with him, but check his audacity; for the avenger of our wrongs is the Lord God who avenges his sons of Canterbury.

The Early Correspondence of John of Salisbury
John of Salisbury and H. G. Richardson
The English Historical Review
Vol. 54, No. 215 (Jul., 1939), pp. 471-473
Published by: Oxford University Press

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