Saturday, 18 May 2013

Garnier: Council of Clarendon January 1164


Extract from
Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1936). La vie de saint Thomas Becket. Librairie Honoré Champion. pp. 33-7.

Verses 185-201
Lines 921-104

185. A Clarendune sunt li baron asemblé,
E li eveske i furent en grant pleneireté.
La volt li reis ke seit, oiant els tuz, mustré
Ceo que li arceveske li aveit gréante;
Mes l'arceveske peise k'il ot tant trespassé.

185. At Clarendon were the barons assembled.
And the bishops were there in great plenitude.
The king wanted it was that in the hearing of all shown
That which the archbishop had consented to with him.
But the archbishop thought that he had gone too far.

186. Mult fu dolent el cuer k'ot fet greanteison
De custume tenir ki est contre raison;
E mielz volt vers le rei chaïr en acaison
Ke mettre seint' iglise en tel cumfusion.
Ne crient encuntre Deu manace ne prison.

186. It did much sorrow in his heart that he had made a promise
To uphold custom which was against reason;
And towards the king better wanting him to fail in cause
Which has placed Holy Church in such confusion.
Up against God, neither fears threats nor prison.

187. Quant le rei nel pot veintre, n'i ot que coreciei.
Mes les ordenez Deu manace a detrenchier;
Seint' iglise voldra, se il poet, trebuchier.
Ne s'en volt l'arceveske de rien humilier,
Pur chose dunt li reis le sace manacier.

187, When the king could not vanquish, this only enraged him
Threatening those ordained of God to cut them up into pieces
Holy church he would, if he could, knock down.
For none of this would humiliate the archbishop,
No matter what the king threatened him with.

188. Ne sai que li reis ot, e li suen, aturné,
Mes dreit a l'arceveske sunt dui eveske alé,
Li uns de Salesbire, que li reis ot en hé,
E cil de Norewiz, k'il n'ot maint ior amé.
L'arceveske Thomas unt si araisuné:

I do not know what the king had, and his own men, set up,
But right to the archbishop were two bishops gone,
The one from Salisbury, whom the king had a hate,
And he of Norwich, of who he did not have much love.
The archbishop Thomas they were to make listen to reason:

189. «Sire», funt il, «pur Deu aiez merci de vus,
«De tute seint' iglise e de clers e de nus.
«Car li ,reis est vers vus en si grant ire escus,
«Se vus ne fêtes pais ui vers lui a estrus,
«Ceo saciez que nus iermes ambedui des chiés blus».

189. «Sire», they said, «for the sake of God, have mercy on yourself,
«For the whole of Holy Church, and for the clerics and for ours,
«Because he, the king is towards you in so great an ire beset,
«If you do not make peace definitely with him for sure,
«For this, know you, that we in tears both will have our heads severed».

190. Pur ceo ne s'est de rien l'arcevesque demis
De ceo k'il ot anceis en sun curage empris.
Dune sunt a lui venu dui cunte del pais,
Li cuens de Leïrcestre, ki de sens ot grant pris,
E cil de Cornuaille, ki ert al rei amis.

For this did nothing to put the archbishop down
Of this which he had beforehand in his courage taken up.
Then were come to him two earls of the country,
The earl of Leicester, who was great given of sense,
And he of Cornwall, who was a friend of the king.

191. Dient li k'ait merci e des suens e de sei,
De seint' iglise prenge, e de ses clers, cunrei;
Car si cel jur ne fait la volenté le rei.
De lur mains lur estuet faire si grant desrei
Li reis e il en erent huni cum gent senz lei.

They said to him that he should have mercy on his own men and himself,
Of Holy Church watch over, and towards his clerics, make provision;
Because if this day the will of the king is not done,
They would by their hands do so much damage
That the king and they would be dishonoured, as if they were a people without law.

192. Aine pur si grant manace ne perdi sa vertu.
Dui frère d'ultre mer sunt dune a lui venu.
Dan Ricard de Hastinges (maistre del Temple fu)
E Hostes autresi; mult erent coneû.
En Iermes devant li se sunt aresteû.

Even for so great a threat he did not lose his strength.
Two brothers from overseas then came to him.
Sir Richard of Hastings (who was Master of the Temple)
 And Osto [of St. Omer] as well, who were well known.
And stood in front of him in tears.

193. «Sire», funt il, «pur Deu, ki unkes ne menti,
«De tute seint' iglise pur quel n'avez merci?
«Fêtes la volenté de tant le rei Henri:
«Greantez ses custumes; dune serez bon ami.
«Seint' iglise altrement e clers sunt mal bailli».

«Sire,» they said,  « for the sake of God, who never lies,
«For the whole of Holy Church for which do you not have mercy?
«Do the will of everything the King Henry:
«Agree to his customs; then be a good friend.
«Holy Church otherwise and the clergy will be badly abused».

194. Bien erent a seûr e del tut acerté,
Se il gréante al rei ceo k'il ad demandé,
Ke li reis en fera tute sa volenté,
Ne ja cuntre sun ordre n'en ert mes rien parlé.
Et celui unai's il y a eu d'abord cil;
De ceo mettent en plegge els e lur lealté.

Well would be safely and for all certainity,
If he agreed to the king that which he had demanded
which the king and would be all his will
Neither I countering his order  nor in but nothing spoke
And to him  there was at first;
Of which placing a pledge else and their loyalty.

195. Greantent li k'il seient en fin mort e damné.
Se li reis quiert vers lui engin ne falseté,
Mes k'il li face honur, oiant tut sun barné,
De ceo dunt l'a desdit; qu'or li seit gréante!
N'en volt estre vencu, ne li tort a vilté.

195. Granting him that they would be at the end dead and damned
If the king was seeking towards him deceit or falsety,
But which he would do to him [the king] honour, [if] within the hearing of all his [the king's] barons.
Of those of which he has repudiated; which he were now to agree
Neither would he be signifying defeat, nor would he be wronged by shame.

196. Or veit li arceveske k'il l'unt tant agacié;
Veit le rei e les suens forment prons en pechié,
Seint' iglise en trebuch, e lui e le clergié,
E creit ke il avra ja del rei l'amistié.
Cels veit mult renumez ki li unt conseillié.

196. Now the archbishop saw they had all pressed him
He saw the king and his own shaping prone to sin.
Holy church cast down, and he and the clergy,
And believing that he would still have the king's amity.
He saw of how much renown those who had counselled him.

197. «Seignur», fet il idunc, < vostre cunseil en crei;
«Quant vus le me locz, sa volenté otrei;.
«Dune sunt il levé sus, e il pramet al rei,
«Oiant tut sun barnage, ceo dit: en bone fei
«E lealment tendra e custumes e lei.»

197. «Seigneur», said he then, «I believe in your counsel;
«When you to me say it, his I will concede;
«Then are it lifted up, and I promise to king,
«listening to all his baronage, this said: in good faith
«And loyally keeping both customs and law.»

198. «Segnur», fet dune li reis, «bien avez tuz oï 
«Que l'arceveske m'a pramis, sue merci,
«K'il gardera les leis del tens le rei Henri. 
«Or voil ke il le face greanter altresi 
«A trestuz les eveskes ki sunt ensemble ci». 

198. «Seigneur», then said the king, «Well have you heard
«That the archbishop has promised me, under mercy,
«That he will keep the laws which were held the king Henry.
«Now I want that it is agreed similarly
«By all of the bishops who are assembled here».

199. — «Sire», fet l'arceveske, «e jeo bien le cumant».
Dune se levèrent tuit, sin furent otreiant.
Mes cil de Salesbire se dreça en estant,
Demanda l'arceveske s'il ferait altretant.
«Oïl», fet l'arceveske. — Fet il: «E jel gréant».

199. «Sire», said the archbishop, «and I well it ask».
Then all rose, without being/going give agreement.
But that of Salisbury standing up in an instant,
Demanded the archbishop if he would as much.
«Yes», said the archbishop. Said  he: «And I agree».

200. — «Tutdis», fet li reis, «m'avez contralïé.
«Segnur», fet dune li reis, «quant il m'unt otrïé
«K'il garderunt les leis ki sunt en nostre sié,
«Or seez purveii e si bien conseillié
«Ke mes n'ait plait des leis entre nus comencié.

200. «Always», said the king, «you have contradicted me.
«Seigneur[s]», then said the king, [to the bishops] «when they have given me agreement
«That they will keep the laws which are of our kingdom,
«Now with foresight and be it so well advised
«So that a [legal] dispute of the laws between us does not arise.

201. « Mes ore alez la fors, e si me recordez
«Les leis le rei Henri, e puis sis escrivez.
«Quant escrites serunt, puis les nus musterrez».
Li reis i fist aler trestuz les plus senez.
Les escriz en unt fet e al rei aportez.

201. «So go forth now, and recall for me
«The laws of  king Henry [I], and then write them down.
«When they have been written, then you will show them to us».
The king sent all of the wisest to do this.
The writing of them was done and to the king they were brought.

202. Dune lu lit li escriz, oiant tut le tropel,
«Seignur», îet dune li reis, «n'ai soin de plet novel.
«Or voil que l'arceveske i pende sun seel».
L'arceveske respunt: «Fei que dei Deu le bel,
«Ceo n'iert, tant cume l'anme me bat' en cest vessel».

202. Then were read to them the writings, listening were all who were gathered.
«Seigneurs», said the king to them, «I have no need of a new dispute.
«Now I want the archbishop to append his seal to them».
The archbishop responded: «By the faith that I give to God the glorious,
«This I will not do, not whilst my soul beats within this body».

203. Car cil ki li aveient icest conseil loé,
E li privé le rei, l'orent aseûré,
Se le rei en avreit de parole honuré,
E veant sun barnage li oust gréante,
Ne sereit a nul tens escrit ne recordé;

203. Because those who had commended this advice to him,
And they in the privy of the king, had assured him,
That if the king of it would have his word of honour,
And in the presence of his barons they heard agreed,
Neither would it at any time be written nor recorded;

204. E li reis en fereit tute sa volenté,
E tuz curuz sereient entr'els dous parduné.
Or ri ourent del tut de covenant falsé.
Or n'en fera mes plus; trop a avant aie,
E pesot li que tant en aveit trespassé.

204. And the king would do all he [the archbishop] wanted,
And all anger would be between the two of them pardoned.
Then they all had made a false promise to him.
Now he would do no more; too much had gone before,
And he considered that he had gone too far.

205. Dune se sunt li real altrement conseillié.
Un cyrogrefe unt fet e en dous detrenchié.
A l'arceveske en unt baillie la meitié;
Mes il l'a receû sur defens del clergié.
«Seignurs», fet il, «par ceo savrom lur malveistié.

205. Then those of the royal party a different way advised.
A chirograph was made and cut into two pieces.
To the archbishop one half was handed over;
But he had received it in defence of the clergy.
«Seigneurs», he said, «by this we know their wickedness.

206. «Or veum bien le laz dunt nus devum guaitier;
«Seint' iglise quiderent en cel laz trebuchier».
Dune s'en ala li ber; n'i ot que corucier
De ceo qu'ot gréante cel malice plenier
E l'amistié le rei ne poeit purchacier.

206. «Now well we see the snare against which we must now beware;
«Holy Church, they think, will fall into this snare».
Then the good man went away; he had only been made angry
By how he had agreed to this evil plot
And [still] could not gain the friendship of the king.

207. Pur ceo k"il ot erré einsi, se suspendié;
Ne chanta, tresq'il l'ot l'apostoile nuntié.
Bien vit pur quei l'ot fet, si l'en a deslïé:
Pur délivrer l'ot fet le rei e le clergié,
L'un, de mort e de mal, e l'autre, de pechié.

For this which he had erred thus, he suspended himself;
Neither sang [mass], until he the pope had announced
Well seen pure that which he had done, so he of it absolved:
For deliver he had done the king and the clergy,
The one, of death of wrong, and the other, of committing sin.

208. Mes l'eveske d'Evrous (Rotrot l'oï numer)
Vint dune a Porecestre pur els dous acorder.
Li reis dist que tuzdis em purreit mes parler.
Se il ne poeit tant vers l'apostoile ovrer
K'en sun seel volsist les leis enseeler.

But the bishop of Evreux (Rotrou I have heard him named)
Went then to Porchester to bring these two to accord.
The king said that forever he could but speak of it.
If he [Thomas] could not from the pope manage to obtain
Consent that by his [Thomas'] seal the laws could be ensealed.

209. Par l'eveske Rotrot, ki mult le conseilla,
Ses briefs a l'apostoile li bon prestre enveia;
Ke il comfermt les leis le rei li depreia,
Et pendist sun seel. Mes il le refusa:
Bien sot que par destrece la requeste fet a.

By the bishop Rotrou, who much advised him,
His letters to the pope, the good priest were sent;
In which he begged him [the Pope] to confirm the king's laws 
And [allow him] to append his seal. But he [the Pope] refused it:
Well knowing that it was under duress the request had been made.


See

Garnier de Pont Sainte Maxence (1859). La vie de saint Thomas le martyr, publ. par C. Hippeau. pp. 36–.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Janet Shirley (1975). Garnier's Becket: translated from the 12th-century Vie saint Thomas le martyr de Cantorbire of Garnier of Pont-Sainte-Maxence. Phillimore. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-85033-200-1.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Jean-Guy Gouttebroze; Ambroise Queffélec (1990). La vie de saint Thomas Becket. Libr. H. Champion. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-2-85203-111-1.

Jacques T. E. Thomas (1 December 2002). Guernes De Pont-sainte-maxence, La Vie De Saint Thomas De Canterbury. Peeters. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8



See Also



Rotrou, bishop of Evreux
Richard de Hastings 
Charles Greenstreet Addison (1852). The Knights Templars. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. pp. 64–.

Hoston de St-Omer [
[Aka Osto de Saint-Omer, Toston de St. Omer]
Société des antiquaires de la Morinie (1841). Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de la Morinie. pp. 98–.
Robin Griffith-Jones; David Park (2010). The Temple Church in London: History, Architecture, Art. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-1-84383-498-4.


Jocelyn de Bohun, bishop of Salisbury

William de Turbeville, bishop of Norwich


Robert 'Bossu' de Beaumont, earl of Leicester (1104-1168)


Reginald de Dunstanville, earl of Cornwall

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