Saturday, 17 September 2016

St. Thomas Becket and the Magic Stone

Or the ring of the King of France known as the Régale de France.
A gemstone, ruby cabochon .

It was given by Louis VII to the Shrine of Becket


References

George Frederick Kunz (2012). Rings for the Finger. Courier Corporation. pp. 182–. ISBN 978-0-486-14424-5.

Eiríkr Magnússon (2012). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 476–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.

https://archive.org/stream/thmassagaerkiby01magngoog#page/n492/mode/2up

https://archive.org/stream/b24875892#page/74/mode/2up



Sarah Blick; Laura Deborah Gelfand (2011). Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-20573-X
2. Votives, Images, Interaction And Pilgrimage To The Tomb And Shrine Of St. Thomas Becket, Canterbury Cathedral by Sarah Blick Link - Academia.Edu

Edward Herbert Baron Herbert of Cherbury (1740). The Life and Reign of King Henry VIII.: Together with a General History of Those Times. Booksellers in town and country. pp. 376–. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbuncle_(gemstone)

http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=evans&book=kings&story=ring

https://archive.org/stream/TheMagicAndScienceOfJewelsAndStones/kozminsky-i-magic-1922-RTL014043-LowRes#page/n419/mode/2up/search/becket

https://archive.org/stream/TheMagicAndScienceOfJewelsAndStones/kozminsky-i-magic-1922-RTL014043-LowRes#page/n389/mode/2up/search/becket

http://www.galdrasyning.is/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=333:karla-magnusar-hringar&catid=18&Itemid=60&lang=en



Tuesday, 13 September 2016

Garnier - Becket Prepares to Leave for England, 1170


Guernes de Pont-Sainte-Maxence. Emanuel Walberg, ed. (1922) La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr. C.W.K. Gleerup.  pp. 154–.
https://archive.org/stream/laviedesaintthom00gueruoft#page/154/mode/1up


917 Si tost cum saint Thomas fu acordez al rei,
De sun fuc li sovint, qui petiz ert en fei,
Qui aveit meserré par seignuril desrei.
El païs enveiad sun angele devant sei,
Qui sa veie esneast e ostast le fangei. 4585


918 Johan de Salesbire i aveit enveié,
Qui le sene ad tenu mult plenier del clergié ;
E de part l'arcevesque lur aveit denuncié
Qu'il les asoleit tuz, clers e lais, del pechié
Qu'as escumenïez orent communïé. 4590

919 Kar ne voleit baisier clerc ne lai ensement
Qui as Brokeis eüst eü cumunement.
Ensement ad asols les moines del covent
Qui rien orent eü a cels parchunement :  
Les suens voleit baisier senz enpeechement. 4595

920 Quant saint Thomas s'en dut en Engleterre aler,
Li reis Henris le dut a Ruem encontrer,
Si cum il out pramis, faire deniers livrer.
Unes iteles lettres li ad faites porter ;
Bien les vus savrai lire, ses volez escuter : 4600

921 " Henris, reis des Engleis, des Normanz ducs e sire,
Saluz a l'arcevesque Thomas de Cantorbire.
Loëwis reis de France, si cum j'ai oï dire,
Ad somuns tute s'ost par trestut sun empire ;
Volt aler en Auverne pur ma gent desconfire. 4605

922 " Mes hummes volt destruire e ma terre essillier.
E mi ami de France le m'unt fait bien nuncier ;
Auvernaz m'unt mandé que jo lur voise aidier.
Encontre vus dui estre a vostre repairier,  
A Ruem : saciez bien que mei l'estuet laissier. 4610

923 " E pur ço vus envei un mun clerc mult privé,
Johan d'Oxeneford, qui jo ai comandé
Qu'il vus maint el païs. E par lui ai mandé
Al jovene rei Engleis, Henri mun fil l'ainzné, 
Bien e en pais aiez vostre proprieté.  4615

924 " S'il i ad rien mespris de ço qu'a vus apent,
Mes fiz vus en fera aveir adrecement.
A mei e a mun fil novelë un gramment
De vostre demurance, puet cel estre u l'um ment ;
Pur ço vus vendreit mielz haster, men escïent. " 4620

925 A Lokas furent faites tels letres cum ci a.
Li reis Henris meïsmes les testimonia.
Quant sainz Thomas les vit, sun eire apareilla ;
As Franceis prist cungié, en Engleterre ala.
Johans d'Oxeneford l'i conduist e mena. 4625

926 Li trei prelat qui n'orent l'arcevesque point chier.
Mult duterent, quant sorent qu'il deveit repairier.
A Cantorbire vindrent parler e conseillier
A dan Randulf del Broc, e pur lui enticier
Qu'il deüst l'arcevesque e les suens maistreier. 4630

927 Dunc firent ses serjanz e chevaliers armer,
E od els les menerent tresqu'a Duvre sur mer.
Firent les porz cergier e guaitier e guarder,
Que, se li arcevesques i volsist ariver,
Qu'il li fussent encontre, prez de lui desturber, 4635

928 De destrusser ses hummes, de ses coffres cergier,
De prendre tuz les briefs que il pout purchacier
A Rome ; ja un sul ne l'en voldrunt laissier.
Les porz firent issi cil trei prelat guaitier ;
Mal encontre voleient lur pere apareillier. 4640

929 E qu'il fuissent plus fort a la grant felunie,
Dan Rainald de Warenne unt pris a compaignie,
Gervais de Cornehelle, qui dunc ne l'ama mie,
Randulf del Broc. Tuit trei jurent le fiz Marie,
Se l'arcevesque encontrent, il i perdra la vie. 4645

930 Tut ç'a hum l'arcevesque e mustré e nuncié ;
Car si ami l'oïrent, qui l'en unt acointié.
De nule rien purquant ne s'en ad esmaié ;
Mais de sun païs out e tendrur e pitié,
E des francs qui li ourent en sun eissil aidié. 4650

931 De sun païs veeir aveit grant desirier,
E des suens ramener od lui e conseillier,
Que li reis Henris out sis anz fait essillier.
A Witsant est venuz ; ala par le gravier
Pur esguarder l'oré e pur esbanïer. 4655

932 Li deiens de Buluigne, - Milun l'oï numer, -
Est dunc venuz a lui un message mustrer.
" Sire, fait il, ne vieng passage demander,
Mais de part mun seignur un message aporter,
Le cunte de Buloigne, qui ça me fist aler. 4660

933 " Ço vus mande mis sires que vus bien vus guaitiez.
Mult avez enemis d'armes apareilliez ;
Par tuz les porz de la estes forment guaitiez.
Se vus i arivez, tuz serez detrenchiez
4665 U mis en grant fermine e en chartre lanciez. [p. 144]

934 - Beals fiz, fait sanz Thomas, bien le puis afichier
Que, s'um me deveit tut par pieces detrenchier,
Ne voldreie jo l'eire qu'ai comencié, laissier,
Ne pur poür de mort ne pur autre encombrier.
4670 Ne turmenz ne perilz ne m'en puet mais chacier.

935 " Trop a pluré m'iglise sun pastur, ço m'est vis,
Qui set anz l'a pluré e les nuiz e les dis.
Mais or requier les miens, se ainc fui lur amis,
Qu'a m'iglise me portent, se n'i puis aler vis,
4675 Se si hastivement de cest siecle partis.

936 " E si faites mes livres ensemble od mei porter ;
Se jo ainz nes servi dunt se puissent loer,
Pur ma possessiun m'i voillent honorer.
N'um ne puet en la fin a l'umme plus doner
4680 Que ço qu'il plus desire, s'um li volt graanter. "

937 Quant l'arcevesque sout, e bien li fu nuncié,
Qu'a Dovre erent li trei qui tant l'unt guerreié,
Les briés a l'apostolie baille un vaslet a pié,
U cil trei prelat erent suspendu e lacié ;
4685 Comande qu'il past mer. Cil n'i ad rien targié.

938 Cil est venuz a Dovre ; les evesques trova.
Lur ures ourent dites. L'arcevesque araisna :
" Sire, fait il, la pape, qui m'a enveié ça,
Cum avez deservi, par mei vus salua.
Tenez, lisiez 4690 ces letres, k'enveïes vus a.

939 " Hastez vus ; la besuigne de Rome demorez !
D'apel e del devin mestier estes sevrez. "
Dunc se turna as dous : " Seignurs, fait il, tenez !
J'ai le transcrit des lettres, einsi n'eschaperez !
4695 Qui vus ad de commune ecclesial getez. "

940 Il lur bailla le brief. Quant il i unt trové
Qu'il esteient einsi de lur mestier sevré,
De duel e de coruz furent descoluré. [p. 145]
Pur poi Randulf del Broc n'out le vaslet tué ;
4700 Mais il nel pout trover, car Deus l'ad desturné.

941 Roberz li segretains rest a Dovre arivez.
Pris fu pur ço qu'il n'ot briés del rei aportez,
E qu'il ert senz congié en Engleterre entrez.
El message, ço dit, le primat ert alez ;
4705 Pur sa cruiz aporter contre lui s'est hastez.

942 " Vient il ? funt il. - Oïl, fait Robert, veirement. "
Funt il : " Mais tu deüsses venir plus sagement ;
D'altre seignur deüsses aveir avoement. "
Le segrestain unt mis par fiance erramment
4710 Qu'al premier flot irad ariere, s'il a vent.

943 La pais le rei Henri ot saint Thomas seüre
De raler el païs, de raveir sa dreiture.
Mais s'ele fust bien clere e senz nule emposture,
N'eüssent fait as suens desonur ne enjure ;
4715 Mais conuistre i pout l'un mult tost l'encloeüre.

917 Soon after St. Thomas had come to an accord with the king, he remembered his flock, who were of little faith, who had strayed because of the presumptious behaviour of their overlord. He sent his angel [messenger] home before him, who was to clear the way and wash away the mud.

918 And it was John of Salisbury whom he sent there, and who summoned a general plenary synod of the Church [in Canterbury]. And on behalf of their archbishop he [John] proclaimed that he [Becket] had absolved them all, both clergy and laity of the sin of having had associations with those who had been excommunicated:

919 The reason was that he did not wish to give the kiss of peace to any cleric or layman who might still be sinfully guilty of having contact with the de Broc's. Likewise he absolved even those monks of the [his own] abbey who might have had some recent dealings with these people: to his own he wanted to give the kiss of peace without any impediment.

920 When St. Thomas was about to return to England, he had arranged to meet King Henry at Rouen, as had been promised, to give some money to him. But this letter was handed to him instead. I can read it to you, if you want to listen:

921 <<Henry, king of the English, of the Normans duke and sire, to Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, greetings. I have heard it said that Louis, the king of the France, has summoned his army from all over his empire. He wants to invade Auvergne and conquer my people.

922 He wants to kill my men [vassals] and lay waste to my land. My friends in France have told me of this, and the Auvergnois have asked me to come and help them. I should meet with you in Rouen when I return, but know for now I have to give it up. 4610

923 <<And because of this I am sending you one of my closest clerks, John of Oxford, whom I have told to go with you [when you return to England]. And through him I have commanded the Young King of England, Henry my son, who is my eldest, well and in peace to help you recover your property. 4615

924 If any wrong is committed regarding this after you have returned, my son will ensure you get reparation.>> 
<<Many things have been reported to me and my son about your delay [in returning], lies maybe, but because of this I think you should better hurry.>> 4620

925 Such was contained therein, the letter that was written in Loches; King Henry testified the same. After it was read to St. Thomas, he made ready to travel: taking leave of the French, he was brought to England, guided by John of Oxford. 4625

926 The three prelates who did not at all the archbishop hold dear, were much afraid, when they learned that he would return, They went to Canterbury to speak with and consult Sir Ranulf de Broc, and to entice him to abuse the archbishop and his men. 4630

927 Then they armed his servants and knights, and they brought them with them all the way to Dover by the sea. There they were charged with keeping watch over and guarding the ports, so that, if the archbishop wanted to land there they were ready to come up against him and detain him. 4635

928 They were to strip his men, search through his baggage and seize all the letters they could find from Rome [the Pope]. They were not to let one through. It was thus how these three prelates had the ports watched. They wanted to set up a nasty reception for the father [of their Church] 4640

929 And so they might be more committed to the great wickedness, Lord Reginald de Warrene took into his companionship Gervais de Cornhill, who at that time did not love him [Thomas Becket] much, and Ranulf de Broc. All three swore by the Son of Mary that if any of them encountered the archbishop, he was to kill him. 4645

930 All this was shown and told to the archbishop by people, for if friends heard about it, they would make it known to him. But none of this caused him to have any dismay, except that towards his own country he showed some weakness and sorrow, and also towards the French [free people/France?] who had helped him during his exile. 4650

931 Of his country he had a great desire to see it, and to bring back his men with him and to take counsel from those that king Henry had six years [earlier] sent into exile. At Witsand, where he had come; he took a walk along the shingle beach looking out for a favourable wind, as well as for the exercise. 4655

932 The dean of Boulogne, Milo I have heard him called, then came up to him to give him a message: <<Sire [archbishop],>> he said, <<I have come not to demand passage, but from my lord, the Count of Boulogne, who advises you not to make the crossing, and on his behalf I have brought you a message from him. 4660

933 <<It is my lord's desire to make known to you by letter that you should be on your guard well, for enemies have made ready armed men in all the ports, and who are standing by carefully watching when you are going to arrive there; where [if you do] you will all either be cut to pieces or taken to a large fortress and thrown into a cell.>> 4665

934 <<My dear son,>> said St. Thomas, <<well can I affirm it that, if one were to chop me up part by part into pieces, I would not abandon the journey that I have started, neither the fear of death nor other obstacle, neither the torment, nor danger can stop me from my aim. >> 4670

935 Too much has my Church shed tears for its pastor, so it seems to me, who for seven years has cried both day and night for it. But I now ask my people, if I was their friend before, that they carry me [back] to my church, if I cannot reach there alive, if I am parted from this world suddenly. 4675


936 And have my books brought back together with me: even if I have not served my people as much as they might have appreciated, it would be an honour to me for them to accept my bequest, for there is nothing more that a man can give at the end [of his days] than to bequeath that which he loves most, if that wish may be granted to him. 4680

937 When the archbishop learned, and well it was told to him, that at Dover there were the three [prelates] who had fought him so many times, he entrusted the letter from the Pope to a foot servant, [the letter] in which these three prelates had been suspended and bound [forbidden to perform divine office]; [the servant] was ordered to cross the sea, and nothing was to delay him doing this.4685

938 The [servant] reached Dover; he found the bishops who were saying their hour [of prayer]. He addressed the archbishop [of York]: <<Your grace,>> he said, << The Pope has sent this [letter] through me, in the manner you deserve through me he greets you. Take and read this letter which he has sent to you..>> 4690

939 << Hurry up: you are delaying the business of Rome! From your calling and [performance of] divine service you have been severed.>> Then he turned to the other two, <<My lords,>> he said, << take them! I have a copy of the letter [for each of you]: also you do not escape, you are thrown out of the ecclesiastical community [excommunicated].>> 4695

940 He delivered [to each of] them the[ir] letter. When they found themselves cut off from their ministry, they turned pale with grief and anger. For a few moments, Ranulf de Broc might have had the servant killed, but he could not find him, as God had moved him away from there. 4700

941 Robert, the sacristan, also arrived at Dover. He was arrested for he was not carrying a letter from the kin, and was without formal leave to enter England. [The reason he had come]as messenger of the primate [Becket] was to fetch his cross in preparation for his return. 4705
[Robert the sacristan was in charge of the Treasury of Canterbury Cathedral]

942 <<So he's coming?>> they said.
<<Yes,>> said Robert truly.
They said: <<But you ought to have arrived in a more advised manner with the consent of another lord.>>
The sacristan was quickly released on [his] trust that he would go back on the first high tide, if there was wind. 4710

  
943 The peace agreement that king Henry had made with St. Thomas was [for him to be able] to return to the country [England] and recover his rightful due. But if the safe conduct had been made sincerely and without deceit, his men would not have been subjected either to dishonour or injury; but he was very quickly to learn of the [true] nature of his letter of authority.

References

The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket by John Morris, (1885) 2nd Edition pp. 372 https://archive.org/stream/lifemartyrdomofs00morrrich#page/372/mode/1up
https://archive.org/stream/lifemartyrdomofs00morrrich#page/372/mode/1up


https://archive.org/stream/courthouseholdit00eyto#page/148/mode/1up

William of Canterbury
Materials for the History of Thomas Becket Volume 1 p.86-8
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist01robe#page/86/mode/2up


Bocke, Mary Annette, "An Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, the Archbishop of Canterbury By William, a Monk of Canterbury" (1946).
Master's Theses. Paper 57.Book 2
http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/57

Opera. Parker. 1845. pp. 300–.

CTB Volume 2 - #322 p. 1338-9
King Henry to Archbishop Thomas of Canterbury
Loches, early Nov 1170

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Whittaker. pp. 292–.


Friday, 9 September 2016

Garnier - Meeting of Becket with the King at Tours and Amboise Late Summer 1170

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1922). ed. Emmanuel Walberg,  La vie de saint Thomas Becket. C.W.K. Gleerup. pp. 149–.

889 La nuit que l'endemain dut estre l'asemblee,
A treis liwes de Turs, la u fu purparlee,
Jut saint Thomas a Turs ovoc sa gent privee.
Par Rotrout l'arcevesque a cele veie alee.
Par ç'ad la volenté le rei mult espruvee. 4445

890 Kar li reis li mustrout defors mult bel semblant ;
Pur ço diseient tuit, li petit e li grant,
Que ja mais nel harreit li reis a sun vivant.
Pur ç'ala saint Thomas a Turs la nuit devant,
Saveir s'i entendist ço qu'en alout disant. 4450

891 Pur ço s'ala a Turs cele nuit herbergier
E saveir se li reis le voldreit la baisier.
Mais il ne porta la maaille ne denier ;
Mais il ne porta la maaille ne denier ;
Ses guages li covint rachater u laissier.
Ne li reis nel baisa, n'il nes fist desguagier. 4455

892 Forment en fu trublez li huem Nostre Seignur.
Ses sumiers fist chargier en la puinte del jur,
Rova qu'il se mesissent erramment el retur.
Li reis estut as estres en cel palais auchur,
E vit si tost errer les hummes sun pastur ; 4460

893 E après els le vit grant aleüre errer.
Après li fist li reis ignelement aler ;
Rova qu'il l'atendist, qu'il volt a lui parler.
Ainz erra une liwe, qu'il volsist arester.
Hors veie esteit turnez pur ses hures chanter. 4465

894 Desur une vert place unt le rei atendu.
E chanterent lur hures ; ne sunt pas descendu.
E li reis vint a lui, si tost cum l'a veü.
Li reis e l'arcevesque se sunt entrevenu,
E li uns aveit l'autre encontré de salu. 4470

895 "El nun des treis persones, fait li reis, sumes trei. "
Car saint Thomas aveit ilueches ovoec sei
Le prelat de Ruem (Rotrout ot nun, ço crei) ;
Einsi furent dunc trei, entre els dous e le rei.
E lur clerc se teneient ariere en un conrei. 4475

896 " Reis, fait li sainz Thomas, mal estes enseigniez.
Vus n'estes mie tels cum estre solïez
Al tens que vus servi, ainz estes tuz changiez,
Quant en vostre cité ai mes guages laissiez.
Nel fesist Loëwis pur enguagier ses fiez. " 4480

897 Dunc ad li reis surris ; ne sai s'i out faintié.
Fait il : " Sire arcevesque, or vus vei mult irié ;
Mais or suffrez a tant, car bien ert adrescié.
Altres besuignes m'orent le quer si enlascié,
Ne poi entendre a vus pur terre ne pur fié. " 4485

898 Quant il orent ensemble, tant cum voldrent, parlé,
Muntent sur lur chevals e sunt acheminé.
Li reis ala ariere, il sunt avant alé.
Mais l'endemain se sunt a Anbaise asemblé ;
Par semblant e par diz la se sunt acordé. 4490

899 Tutes les covenances unt iloec recordees,
E li reis les ad bien, oiant tuz, graantees.
Ses lettres a pendant seel l'en ad dunees,
Qui sunt a ses justises e a sun fil alees.
Richarz Malban e Hue li Clers les unt portees. 4495

900 S'oïr volez les letres, jes vus sai tresbien dire,
Si cum li reis les fist e diter e escrire :
" D'Engleis e de Normanz Henris e ducs e sire
Saluz a sun chier fiz Henri, rei de l'empire.
Saciez que l'arcevesque Thomas de Cantorbire 4500

901 " S'est a mei acordez tut a ma volenté.
Pur ço comant que il e tuit, lai e letré,
Li suen qui pur li furent hors del païs alé,
Pais aient, e le lur, - rien n'en seit recolpé, -
Aient plenierement par trestut mun regné ; 4505

902 " E que li arcevesques e li suen ensement
Tiengent bien e en pes e honurablement
E terres e iglises e altre tenement,
Tut isi cum il tindrent treis meis derrainement
Devant ço qu'il eissist d'Engleterre od sa gent.  4510

903 " Les plus vielz chevaliers faites dunc asembler
E les plus ancïens que vus porrez trover
El fiu de Salewode. Ço qu'il purrunt jurer
Qu'a l'arceveschié deie, de tut cel fiu, aler,
Faites a l'arcevesque e baillier e livrer.  4515

904 " Quant les avrez veües, les letres retenez. "
Mais li sainz arcevesques, qui mult par ert senez,
Comanda que li briés fust escriz e mustrez
Altresi as estranges par tut cum as privez ;
Car del retenir fu li moz forment notez.  4520

905 Li briés fu a Ambaise saint Thomas graantez,
Mais a Chinun fu puis a ses hummes livrez.
L'arcevesques i fu testemonies numez
Qui de l'arceveschié de Ruem ert chasez.
Par tut les a li reis, tant cum pout, traïnez.  4525

906 D'Ambaise fist en France saint Thomas returner
E cum sun messagier en sa besuigne aler.
E a Ruem se durent andui entrecuntrer ;
La li dut li reis faire cinc cenz mars aporter,
Dunt il porreit ses detes a cel'hure aquiter.  4530

907 Car li reis li dut rendre par fine covenance
Quanqu'il out pris del suen e des suens a va illance ;
Ne l'en volt sainz Thomas faire nul'alegance.

Mais li premiers deniers est encore en balance ;
Li reis l'ad mis encore en mult bele suffrance.  4535

908 Bien trente milie livres out de l'arceveschié,
Estre tut ço qu'il out eü e purchacié
Des rentes a tuz cels qui erent dechacié.
Car mult furent raienz li humme de cel fié,
E li bois l'arcevesque vendu e ess illié. 4540

909 Li humme l'arcevesque en Engleterre alerent ;
Les letres al viel rei al jovene rei porterent.
Assez firent transcriz e par tut les mustrerent
E les plus gentilz hummes del honur asemblerent,
Al rei as justises ovoec els le menerent. 4545

910 E quant les ourent fait devant le rei aler,
E durent la parole l'arcevesque mustrer,
Il s'alerent seer, n'i voldrent mot suner ;
Pur sun seignur ne volt nul d'els en place ester.
Faintié virent par tut ; en faintié furent per. 4550

911 Les justises le rei firent lunge traïne.
Tute l'arceveschié remest einsi frarine,
Ainz que cil dui eüssent des maneirs la saisine,
Ne remist buef ne vache ne chapuns ne geline,
Cheval, porc ne berbiz, ne de blé plaine mine. 4555

912 A la Sainte Marie Magdalene en esté
Furent li arcevesques e li reis acordé.
Tresqu'a la Saint Martin l'unt par respit mené,
Ainz qu'il eüst saisine de sa proprieté,
Tant que Randulf del Broc out tut pris e fulré. 4560

913 Liqueus rendra raisun de ço qu'en ad eü,
U li reis u Randufs, al grant jur irascu ?
La ierent coveitus senz fin mort e perdu,
La ne purra nul d'els faire de l'autre escu.
De quanque Randuls fist, adrecement n'en fu. 4565

914 Deus adrecera tut, qui tut seit e tut veit ;
Deus est si dreiturels ne poet faire fors dreit,
E il het tut malice, e justisier le deit.
Les justises erranz ferunt la poi d'espleit ;
Cil les jugera tuz qui nuls d'els ne deceit. 4570

915 Deus, cum par est mainz huem pur le siecle avoglez !
N'i est amurs ne fei ne pais ne charitez.
Se tuz les biens del mund aveie conquestez,
Si que mes fiz en fust après mes jurs chasez,
Ja n'en sereie mielz devant Deu apelez. 4575

916 Se j'achat abeïes u haltes eveschiez
Dunt jo seie en cest siecle levez e eshalciez,
Devant Deu en serai asprement chalengiez.
Ja de tuz mes parenz n'i serai point aidiez.
Mult achate l'onur quin est a mort jugiez.  4580

917 Si tost cum saint Thomas fu acordez al rei,
De sun fuc li sovint, qui petiz ert en fei,
Qui aveit meserré par seignuril desrei.
El païs enveiad sun angele devant sei,
Qui sa veie esneast e ostast le fangei. 4585

Translation

889 On the night before which on the next day the assembly was to be held three leagues from Tours, in the place where it was previously agreed and arranged, that night St. Thomas was to lodge in Tours itself with his private circle of people. [He was advised] by archbishop Rotrou that this was the way to go, for by this the intentions of the king could be put to the test. 4445

890 As the king was outwardly showing great kindness towards him, and because of this everyone, both the humble and the grand, were saying that the king would never hate him [again] whilst he [the king] lived, Thomas travelled to Tours the night before to establish whether what he was hearing was true. 4450

891 For this he proceeded to Tours that night to lodge there to find out whether the king would give him the kiss of peace. But he did not bring any money, neither halfpenny nor penny; he was unable to release his pledges from their bond before he left. And neither would the king kiss him, nor provide the means which to have his bonded items released. 4455

892 And this troubled the vassal of our Lord a great deal. He had his sumpter horses loaded up at the break of day. And to his men he ordered that they must make ready to return immediately. And the king was looking out of the window of his chamber in the upper storey of this tall palace, and saw the men of his pastor leave speedily. 4460

893 And he saw him [Becket] follow after them in great haste. The king rapidly sent some men to go after him, to implore that he should attend him. But he rode on a further league before he deigned to stop and turn off the trackway to chant his hours. 4465

894 Thus it was in a green lea he waited for the king. And they sang their hours. Without dismounting he [Becket] went up to the king the moment he saw him. The king and the archbishop went up against each other. And the one met the other with greetings of salutation. 4470

895 <<And we are now the three Persons [a joke about the Holy Trinity],>> said the king [in jest], <<for we are three.>> As St. Thomas had with him the prelate of Rouen (called Rotrou, I believe); thus there were three of them, the two of them and the king, and their clerics stood back from them lined up in battle order. 4475

896 <<King,>> said St. Thomas, <<you have been very poorly advised. You have not behaved towards me in the way that you used to at the time when I served you. You seem to have changed, for when I was in your city I had to leave behind my pledges unredeemed. [King] Louis would not have to pledge his fiefs. 4480

897 Then the king smiled; I do not know whether he was being deceitful when he said: <<Sire archbishop, now I see that you are very angry, but for now you suffer much, but soon all will be put right. Other matters have preoccupied me, that I could not listen to you, neither about land nor fiefs.>> 4485

898 For a time they were together, and then when having spoken with one another for as much as they wanted to, they mounted up on their horses, and set off along the road. The king travelled behind in the rear and they went off first up front. On the next day they reconvened at Amboise. 4490

899 All the clauses of the agreement between them were there set down in writing. And the king acceded to them within the hearing of all present. To his letters he appended his seal, and directed that copies should be given to him [Becket] and sent to his son [Henry the Young King] and his justices. Richard Malband and Hugh le Clerc delivered them. 4495

900 If you want to listen to this I can well tell you about them. To his son the king said and wrote: <<Henry, of England and Normandy, both sire and duke, salutations to his dear son, Henry, king of the empire, know that the archbishop, Thomas of Canterbury 4500

901 has come to an agreement with me in accordance with my will. For this I command that he and all his people, lay and lettered, those men who left the country, they have peace, and to them they may have their possessions. Nothing is to be held back, or cut back. They shall have what is theirs in full, wherever in my kingdom.>> 4505

902 and that the archbishop, and his people likewise, may have in peace and harmony, both lands and churches [benefices], whatever was held three months before he left England with his people. 4510

903 Let the oldest and longest-standing knights you can find in the honour of Saltwood gather together to swear which of its fees are to be handed back to the archbishop. And then to hand them over and deliver them to him. 4515

904 "Put these letters into safekeeping after you have read them."
But the holy archbishop, who was very smart, was very careful to note the words used, he ordered that copies of the letter were to be made and shown to strangers as well as his friends. 4520

905 These letters were agreed with St. Thomas at Amboise, but it was only later in Chinon that they was actually physically given to his men. The Archbishop of Rouen was there and witnessed them. By every means possible the king tried to delay this. 4525

906 After Amboise, he made St. Thomas return into France as his messenger on his business. The two were to meet together again at Rouen, where the king was to bring him five hundred pounds with which he [Becket] would be able to settle his debts at that time. 4530

907 As the king had to by a term in the agreement to give back  the equivalent in value that he had taken from him and his men, as St. Thomas did not wish to have any reduction in this. But the first payment was still outstanding. The king even now still owes it despite much complaint about the delay. 4535

908 Full well £30,000 the king seems to have taken from the archbishop's see, and the income procured  from all those lands of those who had been expelled, for much has been exacted from the men of these fiefs. And the woods belonging to the archbishop the timber from which was sold off and they have been razed to the ground. 4540

909 The archbishop's men went to England carrying the letter from the old king to the young one. They had sufficient copies [of it] transcribed, which they used to reveal its content to everyone. They gathered the noblest men of that fief [Saltwood] and took them before the young king and his judges. 4545

910 And when they were brought before the [Young] King and had to speak on behalf of the archbishop, they went and sat themselves down, not wanting to utter one word. None of them wished to be put on the spot for their overlord. Everyone saw the pretence; in pretence they were equal to each other. 4550

911 The king justices dragged the case out for a long time and the whole of the archbishop's see was thereby reduced to penury before the archbishop's two men could take possession of the manors. There remained neither ox nor cow, nor capon nor hen, nor horse, pig nor sheep, nor even a full sack of grain. 4555

912 From the day of St. Mary Magdalene [22nd July], in summer, when the archbishop and the king had been reconciled, all the way through to the feast day of St. Martin [of Tours - Martinmas 11th November] by adjournments and other dallying [by the king] it was only then he [Becket] was able to take full possession of his lands. This gave Ranulf de Broc enough time to pillage and strip them bare. 4560

913 For it is on the day of the last judgment where they will have to render account for what was stolen, whether it was either the king or Ranulf. There the greedy are condemned to perpetual death and perdition.  At that moment neither will be able to use the other as a shield. Of the several [wrongs/thefts] that Ranulf committed, none was ever made good. 4565


914 God who knows all and sees all will put to right everything; God is so just that He cannot do anything except right, and He hates all wickedness, and must punish it. The errant justices will gain little advantage; they will all be judged by one whom none can deceive. 4575

915 O God, how completely blinded are most men by the world, where there is neither love nor faith, nor peace, nor charity! If I were to gain all the goods in the world in such a way that my son were to inherit them at the end of my days, I would not be treated in a more favourable way when summoned before God. 4575

916 If I were to buy some abbeys or prestigous bishoprics which might raise my rank and enhance my honour in this world, before God I would be severely accused of it. and of all of my relatives none would come to my aid. I would have paid  dearly for the honour if its price is the sentence of death! 4580


Letter King Henry II to his son the Young King summer 1170

James Craigie Robertson (1877). Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, Volume VII Longman. p. 112.

Letter MTB 690.

INCIPIT CONCORDU INTER HENRICUM REGEM ANGLIA
ET THOMAM CANTUARIENSEM ARCHIEPISCOPUM.

Henricus rex Angliae filio suo Henrico regi Anglorum salutem.

Sciatis quod Thomas archiepiscopus Cantuariensis
pacem mecum fecit ad voluntatem meam. Et ideo
praecipio quod ipse et omnes sui pacem habeant;
et faciatis habere ipsi archiepiscopo et omnibus
qui pro eo exierunt ab Anglia, [omnes*] res suas
bene et in pace et honorifice, sicut habuerunt tribus
mensibus antequam ipse archiepiscopus recessisset ab
Anglia ; et faciatis venire coram vobis de legalioribus 
et antiquioribus militibus de honore de Saltwode,
eorum sacramento faciatis recognosci quid ibi habea-
tur de feudo archiepiscopatus Cantuariensis ; et quod
recognitum fuerit de feudo ejus esse ipsi archiepi-
scopo habere faciatis.

Teste Rotroco archiepiscopo Rothomagensi apud Chinum.

Translation

Here begins the concord between Henry, king of England, and Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury.

Henry, king of England, to his son, Henry, king of the English, greetings.

This is to let you know that Thomas archbishop of Canterbury has made peace with me in accordance with my will.

And therefore I command that he himself and all his men may have peace; and you are to make over to the archbishop himself and all those who left England in his cause, [all] things and their goods, both in peace and honour, as they had in the three months before the archbishop himself withdrew from England.

And you may make to come before you in person those knights who are the more lawful and longer standing (the more ancient) from the honour of Saltwood, and on their pledge you may cause to be identified that which is there which belonged to the fief of the See of Canterbury; and that which is identified to have been from the fief of the archbishop himself you may cause him to have.

Witnessed by Rotrou, archbishop of Rouen at Chinon

References

The Anglo-Norman Online Hub.
(AND - The Anglo-Norman Dictionary)
Aberystwyth University and  Swansea University
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Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (FEW) 
https://apps.atilf.fr/lecteurFEW/index.php/page/view



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