Monday, 15 May 2017

South-English Legendary

The early South-English legendary ; or, Lives of saints. I. Ms. Laud, 108,
in the Bodleian library. Edited by Carl Horstmann.
27 ¶ Ici poez oyer coment seint Thomas de Kaunterbures nasqui. e de quev manere gent de pere e de Mere.
http://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/cme/AHA2708.0001.001/1:3.18?rgn=div2;view=fulltext
https://goo.gl/lkhBgU

The Early South-English Legendary, Or, Lives of Saints
by Carl Horstmann , Bodleian Library
https://archive.org/details/earlysouthengli01librgoog

https://archive.org/stream/TheEarlySouthEnglishLegendary#page/n165/mode/2up

Die me. Thomas Beket-Legende des Gloucesterlegendars (Teilausgabe): Kritisch hrsg. mit Einl. 1919

William Henry Black (1845). The Life and Martyrdom of Thomas Beket: Archbishop of Canterbury. Percy Society.

John Scahill; Margaret Rogerson (2005). Middle English Saints' Legends. DS Brewer. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-1-84384-059-6.

South English Legendary - Wikipedia

Robert of Gloucester (1810). Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle. Transcrib'd and Now First Publish'd from a Ms. in the Harleyan Library by Thomas Hearne, M. A. ... in Two Volumes: 1-2. Bagster. pp. 465–.

Legenda aurea - Légende dorée - Golden legend. A study of Caxton's Golden legend with special reference to its relations to the earlier English prose translation .. : Butler, Pierce

Bibliography
http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/m/mec/med-idx?type=byte&byte=192944273&egdisplay=open&egs=192964979

http://lexissearch.arts.manchester.ac.uk/citation.aspx?id=10145
https://goo.gl/UWqb1G





Friday, 21 April 2017

Garnier: Events Immediately After the Murder of Becket

Stanzas 1132 - 1171

1132
Dementieres que firent li fil a l’aversier
Cele grant heresie dedenz le saint mustier,
Remist Roberz del Broc es chambres pur burgier,
E pluisur altre od lui as cofres depescier :
5660 Pristrent dras e veissele e argent e or mier ;

1133
Pristrent sun bon cultel, qui valeit une cit,
E un anel u out un safir mult eslit
(Nel dunast pur aveir ; ainc huem meillur ne vit),
E un mult riche drap d’un grant purpre samit.
5665 Pris i furent si livre e trestuit si escrit,

1134
E le chalice d’or u li sainz out chanté
(Pluisurs feiz sur le deis l’unt brisié e quassé),
E vestemenz e dras e quanqu’il unt trové,
Cuilliers, cupes, hanas d’argent, d’or esmeré,
5670 E bien seissante livres d’argent tut muneé ;

1135
E tuz ses beaubelez, qu’il aveit fait guarder
E qu’il ne voleit pas a tutes genz mustrer,
Altres choses asez, que jo ne sai numer
Ne que nuls de ses hummes ne me sout acunter,
5675 Chartres e privileges : tut en firent porter.

1136
Les chambres saint Thomas e les maisuns roberent ;
N’il voldrent rien laissier, un e el en porterent.
Les chevals saint Thomas tuz ensemble en menerent ;
Ses hummes e ses clers, la u il les troverent,
5680 Pristrent od lur aveir, e sis enprisunerent.

1137
Einsi grant cruelté ne fu faite unches mes,
La u justise eüst ne en terre de pes,
Parkes la u li reis n’en fait nului relès.
Car en tut le mund n’a, ne de luinz ne de pres,
5685 Nul plus grief justisier qu’il est. Mais jo m’en tes.

1138
Nis pur les bestes mues fait il mult grief justise,
Les beaus hummes desfaire, metre maint a juïse.
Mais Deus, qui les mesfaiz, quant il bien volt, justise
Ne voleit pas suffrir que vengance en fust prise
5690 Del saint martyr qui fu ocis en sainte iglise.

1139
Einsi fu sainte iglise hunie e violee.
Ne matines ne vespres, messe n’i fu chantee,
Ne Deus n’i fu serviz, ne chandeille alumee.
Li uis furent fermé, al pueple fu veee ;
5695 Tut l’an fu sainte iglise einsi enprisunee.

1140
Fors sulement dis jurs en failli de l’anee:
Quint jur après Noël fu en prison getee,
Quint jur devant Noël refu reconfermee ;
E del pueple e des jurs fu la disme salvee,
5700 E des clers e del rei la bataille finee.

1141
Car li bons corunez pur sa gent corunee
Sa corune en dona as armez desarmee.
Mult fu espiritaus de sa part la medlee,
Quant fist de sa corune escu contre l’espee.
5705 Ainc ne lur volt guenchir pur colp ne pur colee.


1142
Mais se il volsist creire la gent chaperunee,
Mult peüst aveir bien sa mort dunc eschiwee;
Car en cele iglise ad mult mainte desturnee.
De sun gré suffri mort en la maisun sacree;
5710 Grant honur l’en ad Deus en cest siecle dunee.

1143
Ainc mais si pute ovraigne ne fu el siecle ovree,
Ne qui a si grant bien seit al siecle aturnee.
Mais encore ert mult chier al siecle conperee;
U tost u tart en ert l’ire Deu embrasee.
5715 Car la vengance en est a sul Deu graantee.

1144
Mais la vengance Deu n’est pas einsi hastee,
Qui somunt que la culpe seit encor amendee.
Deus ne volt ne desire que l’aneme seit dampnee.
Ne la semaine n’est encore pas entree
5720 U la felunie ert e vengie e trovee.

1145
Mais de primes en est Normendie fulee,
Car la mort al saint humme i fu ainz purparlee,
E cil en est guardains de qui la cause est nee.
E par l’uis dunt quida clore cele baee
5725 Est la veie desclose e l’ire Deu mustree.


1146
Mais Deus ad, bien le sai, cel’ire desturnee
Qu’il aveit al realme e al pueple aprestee.
Car li reis Henris ad del tut culpe clamee,
La mesprisun par tut endreit sei amendee
5730 E tute sa franchise saint’iglise dunee. –

1147
Qui dunc veïst ses clers e ses humes fuïr
E nevelz e parenz e mucier e tapir
E changier lur buens dras e les malvais vestir,
De pitié l’en peüst tute la char fremir ;
5735 Car n’en i out un sul qui ne quidast murir.

1148
Idunc s’en sunt turné li fil a l’aversier,
Lié e balt e joius de lur grant enconbrier.
Puissance lur doinst Deus del mesfait adrescier !
Mais ja mais ne serunt nullui amé ne chier,
5740 Fors sul a cels qui sunt del mesfait parçonier.

1149
Tost furent esfremi e viel e juvencel,
La novele espandue del saint martyr novel,
Qui giseit el mustier ocis sur le quarrel.
Li moine en recoillirent le sanc e le cervel,
5745 E a sun chief le mistrent, en poz, hors del tunbel.

1150
Devant le grant autel fu li cors sainz portez,
E de moines e d’altres fu tute nuit guardez.
Receüz fu li sancs qui en est degutez.
En l’endemain en est a Cantorbire alez
5750 Uns niés Randulf del Broc ; Roberz ert apelez.

1151
Ussier le rei esteit, e fu bien coneüz.
Ne li furent les portes ne nul des uis tenuz,
Car pur le rei esteit e dutez e cremuz.
Des chevals saint Thomas a pris dous des plus druz ;
5755 Quant a ses clers esteient, bien les lur ad toluz.

1152
Car li clerc saint Thomas, od tute s’altre gent,
Esteient chiés les moines fuï a salvement,
Od chevals e od el. Ne lur valut neent :
Brokeis perneient tut, par tut, a lur talent,
5760 E ses clers e ses homes, e tindrent fermement.

1153
Fait Robert : « La terre est voide del traïtur
Qui voleit la corune tolir a sun seignur.
Traitez deüst bien estre a mult grant desonur,
Getez en un putel u en greinur puur. »
5765 De Deu n’aveit cil guaires a cel’ure poür.

1154
« Grant almosne est, fait il, que li fels est ocis ;
Ne fu ainc si buens faiz a faire mais enpris.
Se sainz Pieres eüst vers le rei si mespris,
E j’i fuisse venuz, par le cors saint Denis,
5770 Mun brant nu li eüsse tresqu’el cervel asis. »

1155
Dunc comanda as moines qu’il presissent le cors
E sil muchasent si nel veïst neirs ne sors ;
U vilment le fereit traire a chevals la fors
U depecier par pieces, – ja n’en sereit estors, –
5775 Geter en un putel e as chiens e as pors.

1156
Pur ces noveles furent mult li moine esmaié
E pur ço l’unt es crutes enterré e mucié.
Mais primes unt les dras e le cors tut cergié.
Mais ne l’unt pas trové farsi ne encraissié,
5780 Mais de saintisme habit e vestu e chargié.

1157
Desus les altres dras out d’isenbrun mantel,
Blanche pene d’aigneaus, senz urle, e neir tasel
E desuz, un surpliz blanc, delïé e bel,
Desuz, une pelice blanche de pels d’aignel.
5785 N’out vestu vair ne gris ne samit ne cendel.

1158
Cist forainz habiz fu de chanoine riulé.
Dous pliçuns out desuz, qui furent curt e lé ;
Andui furent d’aignels e fait e aturné.
Trenchié furent de lui a culteaus e osté.
5790 (Puis les vi, e bien soi qui il furent doné.)

1159
Le cors e le ventrail durement freit aveit,
E de sun mal del flanc achaisenus esteit ;
E pur ço tut adès chaudement se vesteit,
Qu’il n’enchaïst en mal par achaisun de freit,
5795 E que tost rechaufast, quant batre se faiseit.

1160
La cule e l’estamine out desuz cel li ber,
Mais de pans e de mances les out fait escurter,
Car ne voleit al siecle sa vie demustrer.
Quant li moine le virent, comencent a crïer :
5800 « Veez ci le bon moine ! Ci le poëz trover ! »

1161
Après aveit la haire pres de la char vestue,
Einsi apareillie que ne fust pas veüe ;
E les braies de haire plus pres de la char nue,
Blanches braies desus, de teile chier vendue :
5805 Car ne volt que sa vie fust al mund coneüe.

1162
Mais si esteit coverte cele robe chevrine,
E desus e desuz, de menue vermine,
Qu’a granz torches i ert par tut, e a traïne ;
E sa char guerreout, ke merveille esteit fine
5810 Que il poeit suffrir einsi grant discipline. 

1163
Car mult plus grief martyre suffri, tant cum fu vis,
Que ne fist el mustier, la u il fu ocis :
Car erramment transi e en joie fu mis ;
Mais cele grant vermine dunt il esteit purpris,
5815 Le quivra plusurs anz, e les nuiz e les dis.

1164
De lui furent li moine e mult dolent e lié :
De ço furent dolent quel virent detrenchié,
Mais de sa vie furent, quant la sorent, haitié.
Mais s’eüssent sun cors tut nu a nu cergié,
5820 Des curgies l’eüssent trové tut depescié ;

1165
Car en cel jur meesmes qu’il fu si decolpez,
Eut esté saint Thomas treis feiz disciplinez.
A grant honur fu dunc es crutes enterrez,
Pur poür des Brokeis, que il ne fust trovez.
5825 Mais or est par le mund cremuz e honurez.

1166
Icil premiers martyres fu en amendement
Des pechiés qu’il out fait jadis seculerment :
Encontre les granz aises suffri le grant turment.
E li secunz martyres fut en saintissement :
5830 Car par l’autre vint il a cest derainement. s

1167
Dunc unt l’arcevesquié saisie li Brokeis.
Mult feluns arcevesques i aveit mis li reis,
Car sulunc ço qu’il furent, establirent lur leis.
Les proveires faiseient chanter tut sur defeis ;
5835 Del tut esteit turnee saint’iglise en decreis.

1168
Randulf del Broc fu dunc chief de l’arceveschié ;
Quanqu’il fist e desfist ert par tut otrïé.
Les rentes e l’aveir ad al rei enveié :
Ja mais tut cil denier n’ierent bien enpleié,
5840 Quant sunt de felunie conquis e guaaignié.

1169
Quant cil denier serunt despendu e alé
E en malvaisses genz e en guerre guasté
(Malvaisement conquis, malement alué !)
Li dé serunt mult tost sur ambes as turné
5845 Qui unt esté sovent sur sines ruelé.

1170
Car nuls ne puet aveir en sun tresor fiance ;
N’es Brabenchuns n’est pas de la fin demurance
N’es Flamencs n’es Engleis ne en tuz cels de France :
Car en sun petit dei en tient Deus la balance,
5850 Qui met, tant cum li plest, noz mesfaiz en suffrance.

1171
Einsi ert des Brokeis cum il fu des Giwius,
Qui firent que par els fu ocis Deus li pius.
Car il quidierent perdre lur terres e lur lius :
Or sunt tuit dechacié, n’unt eritez ne fius ;

5855 Mult avrunt pis Brokeis e mult peiurs fedius. –

================

1132
Whilst these sons of Satan were committing this great act of heresy within the minster, Robert du Broc and many others with him had stayed behind in the apartments to burgle them and to smash open the coffers. They seized vestments, plate, silver, and pure gold. 5660

1133
They seized his fine knife, which was equivalent in worth to a city, and a ring mounted with a blue sapphire of great quality (which one could have not given away for any amount of money, for never had any man seen better). And a very rich vestment made from finest purple samite  They took away his books and all his documents [manuscripts]. 5665

1134
They took the golden chalice which the saint used to celebrate Holy Mass, (many times which they tried to smash and break up on the high table). They took away his vestments, and other garments, and whatever else they found [of value]: spoons, cups, goblets of silver and gold, and a sum of money amounting to nigh on sixty pounds of silver. 5670

1135
They also took all his jewels [baubles/ornaments/valuables], which he had kept in a safe place, ones which he had not wanted to show to just anyone. And many other things which I cannot list, for none of his men knew of them; and charters and privileges, whatever they could carry away. 5675

1136
The apartments and mansions of St. Thomas they robbed: they did not want to leave anything behind. One and all they took everything away They even led away his horses. His vassals and clerks, wherever they found them, they took away their property, and imprisoned them. 5680

1137
And it was thus never ever was there so great an outrageous act done before, there in a land of peace where justice might arise; all the more so there [in a land] where the king releases no one, because, there, in all the world, neither nearby nor far off is there no one more able to exercise a severe punsihment than he. But of this I will say no more. 5685

1138
Even for dumb beasts he has exercised very severe sentences on fine men who have killed them, submitting many to trials by ordeal. But God who punishes misdeeds well when He wants justice would not allow vengeance to be sought for the martyred saint who was murdered in a holy cathedral. 5690

1139
Thus was Holy Church shamed and violated. No matins, vespers nor mass, nothing was celebrated there. No service was held in the name of God, nor candle lit. The doors were bolted; the people were forbidden to enter. For a whole year the holy cathedral was thus imprisoned [under interdict]. 5695


1140
Except for only ten days less than a [whole] year [the Cathedral] ceased to function: on the fifth day after Christmas it was thrown into prison [placed under an interdict], and on the fifth day before Christmas [in the following year] it was reconsecrated; and both the days and the collection of the tithe from the people were thus saved, and the battle between the clergy and the king brought to an end. 5700

1141
Indeed the good tonsured one for the sake of his tonsured clerics had delivered up unarmed the crown of his head to those who were armed. For his part great was the spiritual act when he made of his tonsure a shield against the sword, and showed no wish to escape the blows. 5705

1142
But if he had wanted to trust the monks he could have then very much avoided his death, because in this church there were very many [hiding] places which he could have turned to. It was his own wish to suffer death in the sacred house; and God has granted him great honour in this world for it. 5710

1143
Never ever has there been such a foul deed done in this world, yet never has there been one which has resulted in so much benefit for the world. But yet the world will find it has to pay very dearly for it. Sooner or later God's anger will be set ablaze. Because vengeance for it is given to God alone. 5715

1144
But the vengeance of God is not thus to be hurried, but they who have committed sin should be summoned to answer for their crime and face justice. God neither wishes nor desires for souls to be damned. The week has not yet begun when this felony will be both avenged and found out. 5720

1145
But it was Normandy which was first to be trampled down upon; for indeed it was there that the death of our holy man had been conceived and it was due to its guardian that this case came into being. He believed that he could close the door which was wide open, but it was by that means God's anger was disclosed and exposed. 5725


1146
But God has, well I know it, turned his anger away from this that which He had made ready for the kingdom and its people, because King Henry has accepted full blame concerning this wrongdoing and made amends towards the Church and all its rights and exemptions. 5730

1147
Whosoever saw his clerics and his men flee, and his nephews and relatives, who in order to hide and conceal themselves changed out of their fine clothing and vested themselves in drab ones, who out of pity for his flesh would not have shuddered for them, for there was not one there who did not think he was not going to die. 5735

1148
Then the sons of Satan departed happy and content, full of conceit and joy for the great wrong they had done. May God give them the power to amend for their misdeed! But never will anyone ever love or cherish them again except for those who had participated in this crime. 5740

1149
Everyone was scared, old and young: the news spread of a new holy martyr lying killed on the tiles in the minster. The monks gathered up his blood and brains into jars, which they have now put on display by his head on the outside of his tomb. 5745

1150
The body of the saint was carried up before the grand altar, where it was guarded [in vigil] by the monks and others all night. The blood that had been spilled was gathered up. The next day one of the nephews of Ranulf de Broc came for it to Canterbury. He was called Robert. 5750

1151
He was usher to the King, and was well known. No one barred the doors and gates to him, for they both feared and dreaded the king. He seized two of the most vigorous horses belonging to St. Thomas.  At the same time he seized the goods belonging to his clerics. 5755

1152
For the clerics of St. Thomas, together with all his other people had fled to the monks for safety together with the horses and it [their goods]. Nothing of value was left: the men of de Broc seized everything, the lot, at their pleasure. They seized hold of both his clerics and vassals and kept them locked up. 5760

1153
Said Robert: <<The land is now rid of the traitor who wished to deprive the his sovereign lord [the Young King] of his crown. You should treat him with very great dishonour. He [his body] ought to be thrown into a quagmire or some other stinking place.>> This was said by one who showed no very great fear of God at this time. 5765


1154
<<Great has been the charity done,>> said he, <<by those who killed the felon [traitor]. Never has such a good deed been done [before]. If St. Peter himself had committed such a wrong towards the king, and I was present there, on the body of St. Denis [I swear] my sword would now be sitting [deep] inside his brains.>> 5770

1155
Then he ordered the monks to pick up the body and to hide it so that no one, neither fair nor dark, would see it. Either he would dishonourably have had him dragged outside by horses or chopped up into pieces, as food for livestock to be thrown into a pit full of both dogs and pigs. 5775

1156
Upon hearing this rumoured the monks became very concerned and concealed the body, interring it in the crypt. But first his clothes and body were examined in full. But they not did find it swollen and bloated, instead he was vested in and wearing a very saintly habit. 5780

1157 On top of his other clothing  he wore a mantle made from an iron brown coloured cloth, a white lambskin which was fastened with black tassels; on top of that a white surplice, fine and delicate, and underneath a white pelisson made from the pelt of a lamb. He wore neither vair, nor petitgris, nor samite, nor sendel. 5785

1158
He had the outward appearance of a canon regular. He had underneath two short and wide pelisses which had been, both of them, made and fashioned from a lambskin. To remove them from him they were cut with knives and pulled off (I saw them [afterwards] and well I know to whom they had been given). 5790

1159 He suffered from terrible chills in his body and stomach, and was often troubled by pains in his side. He always dressed warmly, so as not to fall ill because of the cold, and to warm himself up quickly again after floggings. 5795

1160
There too underneath everything our hero wore a monk's hood and a coarse wollen undershirt, but he had had the sleeves and tails shortened, for he did not wish to reveal to the world his way of life. When the monks saw this, they exclaimed, <<Look at what a good monk he was! Now you can see that for yourself!>> 5800

1161
Under that he wore a coarse hairshirt right next to the flesh of his body, which had been so arranged as not to be seen; and breeches made from coarse hair right next to his bare flesh, on top of which were white breeches made from an expensive material because he did not want the world to know how he [really] lived. 5805

1162
But so was this material made from coarse got's hair, both inside and out, covered in vermin [lice], which teemed all over everywhere in great masses, and in trains, making war upon his body, that it was nothing short of a miracle that he could withstand so great a torment. 5810

1163
Thus it was whilst he lived, how so much more so he was to suffer than that of the grief of martyrdom which occurred in the cathedral where he was killed; for there he died with an immediacy and was brought[swiftly] into the bliss [of the afterlife], but in the case of this large mass of vermin of which he was possessed, he was to be tormented by them, both night and day for many years. 5815

1164
The monks were both very sad and happy for him: sad for having seen him cut down, but happy, the more so, when they learned of the kind of life he had led. But had they examined the whole of his naked body, they would have found it all cut up from scourgings. 5820

1165
Because on that very same day when had been struck down dead, three times had St. Thomas been inflicted with a scourging. It was with great honour that they then interred him in the crypt, for it was out of fear of the Brocs that they did not want him found. But now he is feared and honoured throughout the whole world. 5825

1166
His first martyrdom [the scourgings and lice] was for the expiation of his sins which he had committed in this world in former times. It was to make reparation for those pleasures which he had enjoyed earlier that he bore this torment. His second martyrdom [his assassination] then, was the occasion of his sanctification, and it was this other which was the means by which he was to come to this in the end.

1167

Then the de Brocs took seisin of the archbishopric, into which many wicked [false] archbishops were introduced [invested] by the king, who established their own precepts, [such as] making the priests chant mass [in the cathedral], even when it was under an interdict [prohibition on entering the place without the permission] In every which way Holy Church became completely discredited 5835

1168
Ranulf de Broc then took charge of the archbishop's see; whatsoever he did and undid was always approved [by the king]. The rents and wealth/money [he seized] were sent to the king: not a penny was well used when by felony [wickedness] it had been won and acquired. 5840

1169
When this money had all been spent and gone, used by wicked people, and wasted upon war (ill gotten gains wrongfully squandered), so the dice [in backgammon?], which had so often previously cast as a double-six, would now fall only as a double-ace. 5845

References

On Medieval Clothing

s

https://boydellandbrewer.com/series/medieval-clothing-and-textiles.html?limit=24

Medieval Clothing and Textiles - Volume 5

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1843831236
Ro


Medieval Clothing and Textiles - Volume 1

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1843831236
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2005 - ‎No preview
Topics in this first volume include Anglo-Saxon embroidery; textiles and textile imagery in the Exeter Book; the tippet; the regulation of clerical dress; and evidence for dress and textiles in late medieval English wills.



Medieval Clothing and Textiles - Volume 2


https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1843831236


https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1843839075
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2014 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions
Robin Netherton, Gale R. Owen-Crocker. CLOTHING AND TEXTILES • 10
https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1843838567
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2013 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions
The best new research on medieval clothing and textiles, drawing from a range of disciplines.
https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1843837366
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2012 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions
Pan-European research on medieval clothing and textiles, drawing from a range of disciplines.

Medieval Clothing and Textiles - Volume 4

https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1843833662
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2008 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions
The best new research on medieval clothing and textiles, drawing from a range of disciplines and with a special focus on reconstruction.

Medieval Clothing and Textiles - Volume 3

https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1843832917
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2007 - ‎Snippet view


Medieval Clothing and Textiles - Volume 11

https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1783270020
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2015 - ‎Preview
A wide-ranging and varied collection of essays which examine surviving garments, methods of production and clothes in society.

Medieval Clothing and Textiles - Volume 7

https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1843836254
2005 - ‎No preview


Medieval Clothing and Textiles- Volume 12

https://books.google.rs/books?isbn=1783270896
Robin Netherton, ‎Gale R. Owen-Crocker - 2016 - ‎Preview

http://lexisproject.arts.manchester.ac.uk/index.html

Fortescue, Adrian. "Cowl." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 15 May 2017 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04463a.htm>

"stamin, n.". OED Online. March 2017. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/188889?


Tools Used




Rosalind Fergusson; Martin H. Manser; David Pickering (2004). The Penguin Thesaurus. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-101848-5.

Translations

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Jean-Guy Gouttebroze; Ambroise Queffélec (1990). La vie de saint Thomas Becket. Libr. H. Champion. ISBN 978-2-85203-111-1.


Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Ian Short (2013). A Life of Thomas Becket in Verse. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 978-0-88844-306-9.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Volume 1. Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Volume 2. Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1202-1.

Other Versions

The Early South-English Legendary, Or, Lives of Saints by Carl Horstmann , Bodleian Library pp. 168-70
https://archive.org/stream/TheEarlySouthEnglishLegendary#page/n227/mode/1up

Pearse, Irene T., "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket--Books 5-7" (1944). Master's Theses. Paper 684. [Herbert of Bosham]
http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/684 pp. 70-