Tuesday, 31 January 2017

Garnier: Martyrdom 29th December 1170

Venu sunt al quint jur de la Nativité
A Cantorbire cil, quant gent orent digné,
En l’endemain que furent Innocent decolé,
Que Herodes ocist par sa grant cruelté ;
5165 Car es enfanz quida murdrir la Deïté.

1034
D’entur furent somuns serjant e chevalier
Pur la hunte le rei d’Engleterre vengier :
S’um volsist l’arcevesque desturner ne mucier,
Que l’iglise volsissent l’endemain asegier
5170 E de fu enbraser e tute trebuchier.

1035
Li provoz fist par ban par la cité huchier,
Que que il veïssent u oïssent nuncier,
Nuls, ne petiz ne granz, ne s’en osast drecier ;
Si cum chascuns aveit sei e sun aveir chier,
5175 A la besuigne fuissent le rei tut prest d’aidier.

1036
En la curt l’arcevesque vindrent li enragié,
Tut dreit devant la sale sunt descendu a pié.
L’arcevesques aveit a cel’ure mangié ;
En sa chambre seeit od sun privé clergié.
5180 Nis li sergant s’esteient des tables ja drecié

1037
Li quatre sulement sunt en la sale entré
E uns archiers Randulf, qu’il unt od els mené.
Mais le seneschal unt devant els encontré,
E il vint encontre els tresqu’al pié del degré.
5185 Il a els, e il lui, baisié e salué.

1038
Li seneschals esteit de la contree nez,
Bels chevaliers e granz, riches e bien feffez.
Al mangier out servi e puis s’esteit dignez,
Puis esteit en la chambre a l’arcevesque alez :
5190 « Sire, fait il, un poi, se vus plaist, m’entendez.

1039
Par vostre conseil voil, Sire, fait il, aler
A la curt nostre rei e iluec sujurner.
Car del rei ne des suens n’estes mie bien cler :
Pur ço n’os mie bien entur vus demurer,
5195 Que li reis ne m’en hace e voille achaisuner

1040
– Vuillames, fait li il, buen congié en avez.
Ne vus voil retenir, quant aler i volez. »
Dunc s’en esteit partiz, e vint sur les degrez,
E les quatre reals i aveit encontrez.
5200 Par lur comandement est en la chambre entrez.

1041
« Sire, fait il, laenz sunt quatre bacheler
Des chevaliers le rei. » Mais nes volt pas numer
« De part le rei Henri volent a vus parler. »
L’arcevesques respunt : « Faites les enz entrer. »
5205 Erramment les ala Willaumes amener.

1042
A un conseil se sunt tuit li quatre apuié.
Devant saint Thomas sunt asis dreit a sun pié,
E li archiers s’asist deriere els el planchié.
Mais n’unt pas saint Thomas salué n’araisnié,
5210 Ne l’arcevesques els, ki as clers ad plaidié.

1043
Jo ne sai se li bers le fist a escïent,
Qu’il nes volt saluer a l’entrer erramment,
Quant ne voldrent parler, qu’entendist lur talent,
U pur ço qu’il parla si ententivement
5215 De sun conseil as moines e as clers ensement.

1044
Sur sun cute a un moine li sainz huem s’apuia.
En sun seant s’asist ; les baruns avisa ;
Mais mult pitusement tuz quatre reguarda,
E, si cum alquant dient, sul Willaume i numa,
5220 E lui sul par sun nun des quatre salua.
1045
Dunc se sunt enbrunchié li quatre forsené,
N’acuillent ses saluz ne ne l’unt salué.
Cil qui les conduiseit haï lur salveté.
E chascuns d’els aveit, l’un l’altre, reguardé.
5225 Dunc s’esmerveilla mult li bers qu’il n’unt parlé.
1046
Itels i ad qui dient que Reinals li ad dit,
Quant tuit li trei se turent, faintement : « Deus t’aït ! »
Dunc devint li sainz hom plus vermeilz, quant ço vit,
Que nen est escarlate que l’um d’autres eslit ;
5230 Car bien sout qu’il out dit cel mot par mal affit.

1047
« Li reis, fist dunc Reinalz auches irïement,
T’a mandé d’ultre mer par nus veraiement
Paroles. Di, ses viuz oïr priveement
U tu les viuz oïr oiant tute ta gent ? »
5235 Li bers lur respundi : « Tut a vostre talent.

1048
– Mais al vostre, funt il. – Mais as voz », fait li ber.
Dunc en unt comencié entr’els a estriver.
Dunc ad fait sainz Thomas en la grant chambre entrer
Tuz les suens, fors celui qui fu as uis guarder,
5240 Tant qu’il ad entendu dunt voleient parler.

1049
Mais dunc fist sainz Thomas : « Lai me cel uis ester :
Les paroles que j’oi ne deit um pas celer ;
Mais fai me tost chaenz tuz mes clers rapeler
De mun privé conseil ; nes en voil pas sevrer. »
5245 Dunc sunt enz revenu ; mais nes sai tuz numer.

1050
S’il ne fuissent ariere isi tost revenu,
Se li felun eüssent arme u cultel eü,
Entr’eaus l’eüssent mort ; car puis l’unt coneü.
Nis pur poi qu’il ne l’orent ocis e abatu
5250 Del bastun de la cruiz. Mais Deus l’ad destolu.

1051
« Li reis, fait dunc Reinalz, t’a d’ultre mer mandé
Qu’il out pais fait vers tei, e quite t’out clammé,
Tu vers lui ensement ; mais ne l’as bien guardé.
Car n’as pas sagement en sun reaume entré,
5255 Mais od vassals armez par ses chastaus passé.

1052
E ses hummes, qui furent a sun fiz coruner,
E un suen arcevesque, qui dut a li aler,
E dous de ses evesques, a cui deveit parler,
As escummunïez e fait de Deu sevrer.
5260 Les custumes del regne vols abatre et oster,

1053
E al jovene rei vols sa corune tolir.
Or volt saveir li reis se tu t’en volz venir
En sa curt devant li faire dreit e suffrir.
– J’ai fait, fait il, al rei quanque li dui furnir ;
5265 Que riens en seit ariere, ne m’en puet sovenir.

1054
N’al rei, fait il, ne voil sa corune abaissier ;
Treis l’en aidereie ainz par dreit a purchacier.
E en sa terre entrai par sun congié plenier ;
Ne de rien ne m’en deit mis sires chalengier,
5270 Se m’i unt conveié mi humme e mi terrier.

1055
E de lui estre a dreit sui jo tuz aprestez,
A sa curt e par tut, se sui rien meserrez.
Mais il m’ad defendu ses burs e ses citez
E viles e chastaus ; mar i serrai trovez.
5275 Saint’iglise ad li reis ses dreiz quites clamez !

1056
N’est pas de mei la surse de la suspensiun,
Mais d’Alissandre pape, e pur l’enunctiun
Del jovene rei (qui Deus duinst sa beneïçun !),
Pur ço que il le firent a tort e senz raisun,
5280 E n’en voldrent venir a satisfactiun.

1057
– Mais par vostre purchaz, Reinalz li respundié,
Sunt li prelat le rei tut trei escumengié.
E pur ço volt li reis qu’il seient deslïé,
Que vus les asolez, que rien n’i ait targié,
5285 Si cum il sunt par vus suspendu e lacié.

1058
– Ne defent pas, fait il, ne seit par mun purchaz ;
Mais de mei n’i avrunt aïde ne solaz.
Mais a nostre apostolie voisent tuit trei viaz,
Car par vive raisun sunt chaü en ses laz.
5290 Sis obedïenz sui, sun comandement faz. »

1059
Funt li fil al Sathan : « Belement manaciez !
Vus serez mielz guardez que vus ne solïez ;
Ne vus en fuirez pas, cum ainceis faisïez. »
Ne s’en est sainz Thomas esfreez n’esmaiez :
5295 « N’en serai par nul humme, fait il, ja mais chaciez.

1060
Ja mais n’iere pur humme fors del païs getez.
– Coment ? funt li il dunc ; pur le rei n’en istrez ?
– Nun, fait il ; de la mer n’iere ja mais trovez.
N’en istrai pur nul humme ; ici me troverez. »
5300 En ire les aveit cil moz mult enflambez.

1061
« Ne me devriez, fait il, tel message aporter ;
E mis sires li reis est tant leals e ber
Qu’il ne me volsist pas teus paroles mander,
Ne il nes voldra pas guarantir ne tenser.
5305 – Si fera funt il dunc ; bien les osum mustrer.

1062
– Mult me plaig de ses hummes, sainz Thomas respundié,
Qui noz iglises tienent a force e a pechié,
Mes hummes unt batuz, mun somier escurcié,
Mes tuneaus e mun vin tolu e esforcié,
5310 Que mis sires li reis m’i out acharïé. »

1063
Fait Reinalz : « Se li humme al seignur del regné
Orent de rien vers vus mespris e meserré,
E pur quei ne l’eüstes primes al rei mustré,
Qui l’eüst al conseil des baruns amendé ? »
5315 Dunc respundi li sainz, si ad le chief levé :

1064
« Se mei en estoveit testemonies vochier,
Reinald, ja fus tu la, e dui cent chevalier,
U li reis m’otreia que deüsse vengier
Les torz de saint’iglise. Jes ferai adrescier,
5320 E mei le covient faire : ç’apent a mun mestier. »

1065
Dunc devindrent rovent cume feus embrasez :
« Coment ? funt li il dunc ; a vus abandunez
Li reis tuz cels par qui ses filz fu corunez ?
E quanqu’il en unt fait, par li fu, ço savez.
5325 A traïtur, funt il, nus oiant le tenez.

1066
Adès li avez fait e faites deshonur.
– Nel faz, fait sainz Thomas ; nel tieng pur traïtur,
Ne sa hunte ne quier, ainz voil sa grant honur.
Mais la justise a faire m’otriad d’els al jur
5330 Que Deus entre nus dous mist concorde e amur.

1067
Car jo me plains a lui de cels nomeement,
E il me graanta, – si l’oïrent dui cent, –
Que jo presisse d’els mun dreit plenierement.
De mei ne de mes clers ne s’entremet naent :
5335 J’en ferai la justise, tel cum a mei apent.

1068
Ne puis pas curre a curt a chascune mesprise,
Ainz ferai cume prestre la divine justise
De cels qui mesprendrunt vers sainte mere iglise.
– Ci ad, funt il, manaces ! La vengance en ert prise,
5340 Se vus n’asoilez ceaus sur qui sentence est mise.

1069
– Se vus estes, fait il, de part le rei venu,
Ne serez par manaces plus duté ne cremu.
Ici poëz ferir, en cest col tut a nu ;
D’un cultel de maalle ne vus ert defendu. »
5345 Mist sa main a sun col. E cil s’en sunt eissu.

1070
« El i ad que manaces ! » funt il mult haltement.
E le saint arcevesque desfient bassement,
E comandent a tuz par ban communement,
De part le rei, que tuit s’en issent erramment :
5350 Car chier le compera, se nuls plus i atent.

1071
E comandent as moines qu’il unt laienz trovez,
De part le rei, qu’il fust e tenuz e guardez :
Car se il s’en fuieit, il lur ert demandez ;
Rendre lur estovra. Dunc s’est li sainz levez.
5355 Lur defiemenz ad entenduz e notez.

1072
Tresqu’a l’uis de la chambre les chevaliers siwi,
Quant l’orent desfïé, car tresbien l’entendi ;
E cria après els : « Huge, qu’as tu dit ? Di ! »
Ne li distrent un mot. A tant s’en sunt parti.
5360 Mais sun voil l’i eüssent e ocis e murdri.



1073
Sainz Thomas returna, si s’asist sur sun lit ;
Devint tels cum s’il fust trestuz en esperit.
Johans de Salesbire li aveit dunches dit :
« Sire, tuzjurs avez nostre conseil desdit,
5365 Fors ço qu’avez tuzdis en vostre quer eslit.
1074
– Que volez que jo face, dan Johan ? fait li ber.
– Vostre conseil, fait il, deüssiez apeler,
Quant li chevalier vindrent chaienz a vus parler.
Fors achaisun ne quierent de vus a mort livrer.
5370 Mais de vostre corine ne vus puet nuls geter. »
 

1075
Fait li dunc sainz Thomas : « Tuz nus estuet murir ;
Ne pur mort de justise ne me verrez flechir.
E pur l’amur de Deu voil la mort sustenir ;
Ne il ne sunt pas mielz apresté del ferir
5375 Que mis curages est del martire suffrir. »
 

1076
Fait li maistre Johans : « Ne sumes apresté
[166] Que voillum mes encore estre a la mort livré ;
Car en pechié gisum e en chaitivité,
N’un sul ne vei, fors vus, qui muire de sun gré.
5380 – Or seit, fait sainz Thomas, a la Deu volenté. »
 

1077
Endementres s’armerent la fors li chevalier,
E osterent les cotes, ceinstrent les branz d’acier ;
Car tut vindrent armé, chascuns sur sun destrier.
Tost furent apresté de grant mal comencier.
5385 Asez fu qui l’ala l’arcevesque nuncier.
 

1078
« Sire, funt li li moine, alez en cel mustier.
Il chantent ore vespres ; nes deüssiez laissier.
Cil chevalier vus volent e prendre e detrenchier.
– Ne me verrez pur ço, fait il, rien esmaier.
5390 Ci atendrai tut ço que Deus m’i volt jugier. »
 

1079
Quant se furent armé li quatre bacheler,
Vunt as uis de la sale ; mais n’i porent entrer,
Car um les out ainz fait après els bien barrer.
Dunc comencent as uis durement a buter,
5395 Car il voleient prendre le saint e decolper.
 

1080
Quant ne porent les uis par force depecier,
Roberz del Broc, qui sout le mal mult enginnier :

« Or me siwez, fait il, seignur franc chevalier ;
Jo vus metrai laienz par un altre sentier. »
5400 Par devers la quisine sunt entré el vergier.
1081
A l’uis de la chambre out un oriol fermé,
Dreit devers le chardin, qu’i out maint jor esté.
Pur refaire erent dunc abatu li degré,
E li carpentier erent a lur disner alé.
5405 A cel oriol sunt li chevalier turné.
1082
Par iloec est es chambres Roberz del Broc entrez ;
A eschieles i ad les chevaliers muntez.
Les ustilz as ovriers qui firent les degrez,
Besague e cuignies, en unt od els portez
[167] 5410 Pur depecier les uis, ses trovassent fermez.
1083
Quant la gent saint Thomas les oïrent venir,
Cume berbiz pur lous s’en pristrent a fuïr,
Si cume li apostle, quant il virent saisir
La maisnie Pilate Jesu, qui pur murir
5415 Esteit venuz el mund, pur s’iglise establir.
1084
N’i remest uns tuz suls de trestuz ses serganz,
Fors un poi de ses clers, dunt i out mult vaillanz,
E maistre Eduvarz Grim, e moines ne sai quanz,
Qui pristrent saint Thomas, qui encor ert seanz
5420 E atendeit iluec mort e fin de ses anz.
 

1085
Car puis qu’il repaira d’essil d’ultre la mer,
Dist il, oiant plusurs qui l’ai oï cunter,
Qu’il murreit en cel an, bien le volt afermer.
Or n’i out mais de l’an que dous jurs a passer :
5425 Li tierz ert pres alez, u il deveit finer.
 

1086
Nis le jur de Noël li oï um gehir,
Oiant pluisurs qu’i erent pur sun sermun oïr :
« Ci sui venuz, fait il, entre vus mort suffrir. »
Or ert venuz li jurs quel covint acumplir.
5430 E sa vie e sa mort l’unt fait mult halt martir.
 

1087
Nis idunc a la fin de sun sermonement
Ad dit un de ses clers en prophetizement,
Alissandre de Wales, oiant mult de la gent :
« Chaienz ad un martir, saint Alfe, veirement ;
5435 Un altre en i avrez, se Deu plaist, a present. »


1088
Pur ç’atendi iluec e ne volt pas fuïr,
Car il ert a seür e tuz prez de murir.
Quida qu’um ne l’osast el mustier asaillir :
Pur ç’atendi iluec, ne volt la mort guenchir.
5440 Mais Deus le voleit faire en plus bel liu chaïr.
1089
Idunc l’en comencierent al mustier a mener,
Mais proef par vive force lur en estut porter ;
[168] Les uns veïssiez traire e les altres buter.
Mais parmi l’entier mur lur estoveit aler,
5445 U par les uis fermez, s’il volsissent passer.
1090
As altres chambres out une chambre ajustee
Par unt la veie esteit al cloistre plus privee ;
Mais a cele ure esteit a un grant loc fermee.
Mult par fu esbaïe la gent chaperunee,
5450 Quant il virent lur veie tutes parz estupee.
1091
A l’uis de la chambre est uns des moines venuz.
Le loc prist a dous mains ; la a Deus fait vertuz :
Quant le loc volt estuerdre, es poinz li est chaüz,
Cum se il fust aers a un petit de gluz.
5455 L’uis ad overt li moines, puis les ad esmeüz.
1092
Dunc l’en unt al mustier, u voille u nun, mené,
Ensement cum la mort atendist de sun gré.
Li un i unt saché e li altre buté,
Tant qu’il sunt le grant pas dedenz l’encloistre entré.
5460 Mais il se sunt dous feiz enz el cloistre aresté.
1093
Car si tost cum li sainz peut la terre atuchier
E il peut a la terre ses dous piez afichier,
Tuz les empainst de sei, comença a plaidier :
« Que me volez, fait il, detraire e desachier ?
5465 Laissiez mei ! » Dunc l’unt pris e porté al mustier.
1094
Quant l’orent al mustier li moine einsi porté,
Dunc sunt li chevalier dedenz l’encloistre entré,
Les espees es poinz e des haubercs armé,
E uns Hue Mauclerc (einsi l’a um numé ;
5470 Clers ert Robert del Broc, mult plains d’iniquité).
1095
Avant vindrent li quatre pur le mal comencier,
Mais de loinz les siwirent quatre altre chevalier.





--> Stanza 1131


Translation

1033
It was on the 5th day of Christmas when they arrived at Canterbury, on the day after the feast of the Murder of the Holy Innocents [28th December], the day when Herod, with his great cruelty, had had [innocent] children beheaded so that he could have the Deity [the new born Christ] murdered. They arrived at the time when the people had finished their dinner [the main meal of the day, at around 3pm]. 5165

1034
They summoned the knights and serjeants-at-arms from all around [the city] to avenge the shaming of the king. Anyone who wanted to protect the archbishop or to hide him away, was told that the church [of Canterbury cathedral] would be set fire to on the next day, and the whole brought down in ruins. 5170

1035
The provost proclaimed throughout the city [by town crier] a ban [an edict], that no one high or low, should dare to resist whatever was done. Every man who cared for himself needs must be ready fully to aid the king. 5175

1036
Into the courtyard of the archbishop['s palace] they came [rode] like madmen. They got down on foot [from their horses] immediately in front of the great hall. The archbishop [by this time] had just finished eating; he was seated in his chamber amongst his privy circle of clergy. Even the servants had got up from the tables [finished their meals]. 5180

1037
Only the four entered the room [great hall] and one of Ranulf [de Broc]'s archers. But the steward [seneschal] stood in front of them. On their way they had met with him who had already come to meet them at the foot of the stairway. They exchanged mutual greetings and gave him a kiss, he with them and they with him. 5185

1038
The steward was a native of the district, a handsome knight both grand, rich and well endowed with fiefs. At mealtime he had served and then he had dined himself. Then he went into the archbishop's chamber. <<Sire,>> he said, <<may I have a moment of your time please to listen to me?>> 5190

1039
<<With your grace>> he said, <<I wish to go to the court of the king and there to reside, for with the king and his men all is not well for you; that is why I hardly dare to remain with you for the king may come to hate me and accuse me.>> 5195

1040
<<William,>> he said, <<well you have my permission. I have no wish to prevent from going away if you want to go there.>> Then he [William the steward] left him [Becket] and came out onto the stairway, and met with the four royal knights: at their command he re-entered the chamber. 5200

1041
<<Sire,>> he said, <<outside are four knights bachelor of the king.>> But he did not wish to name them. <<They wish to speak with you.>>
The archbishop replied: <<Show them in.>> Immediately William went to fetch them. 5205

1042
All the four were brought into a meeting. They sat down in front of saint Thomas at his feet., and the archer sat himself on the floor behind them. But neither did they greet nor speak to saint Thomas; nor the archbishop to them, who continued to converse with his clerics. 5210

1043
I know not whether our hero did this on purpose, when he did not want to greet them immediately upon their entry, or whether they did not wish to speak so that he may listen to them what was on their minds; or more so because of this, that he was participating so attentively in the discussion with the monks and clerics. 5215

1044
Our holy man pushing himself up on the arm of a monk sat upright, and cast his eyes upon the four of them piteously, and as some have said, he contented himself by only naming only William [de Tracy], addressing only he alone of the four by his name. 5220

1045
The four madmen neither accepted his greeting nor he theirs , and they disregarded him. Their leader very much hated that they might gain salvation. And each of them looked at one another. and then they very much wondered why our hero had not spoken to them. 5225

1046
Some have related that Reginald [fitzUres], when the other three all kept their silence, speaking without any sincerity,  said to him: <<May God help thee!>> At this the saintly man became more than red, redder than cloth of choicest scarlet, because he well understood that he [Reginald] had spoken these words with evil intent. 5225

1047
<<The king>> then said Reginald, <<truly has sent a message from across the Channel through us to you. Say if you wish to hear it in private, or do you wish to listen to it before all the people here?>>
Our hero replied to them: <<Just as you wish!>> 5235

1048
<<More at yours!>> they said.
<<[No,] more at yours!>> retorted our hero.
Then St. Thomas told all his followers to go into the gret chamber, except for one who was to stand guard at the door, until he was ready to listen to what they had to say. 5240

1049
But then St. Thomas said: <<Let this door be: the words that I hear must not be concealed from anyone. But allow me immediately to recall all of my clerics back into this room:
none of it do I wish to keep from my private circle of advisors ! >> Then they all those came back in straightaway; but I do not know their names. 5245

1050
If they had not returned again like that immediately, if the felons had been armed or had had knives then between then they would have killed him [there and then] . Also for a moment they might have hit and killed him with the staff of a [his?] cross, but God had removed it [from view]. 5250

1051
<<The king>> then said Reginald, <<has sent a message to you from over the sea [saying] that he had made a peace agreement with you, and had proclaimed you to be quit [of any claims from him], and likewise you towards him, but you have not have not kept this agreement well, for you have entered his kingdom in an unwise manner, because you have passed by his fortifications with a train of armed retainers. 5255

1052
<<And the men who crowned his son, including one of his archbishops, who had to go to him and two of his bishops whom he cannot speak to as you have excommunicated them and severed them from God, customs of the kingdom which you want cast down and have gotten rid of.>> 5260

 
1053
<<And the Young King whom you wish to deprive his crown. Now the king wants to know if you will come and appear before him [in his] court [of law] to be judged and make reparations.
<<I have said>> he said, <<I have rendered unto him all that was due. I do not remember if anything else remains.>>

1054
I have no wish that the Young King should relinquish his crown! Rather I would help him acquire three lawfully. And it would be with his full consent that I would enter into his land; my lord sovereign ought not for this to bring an accusation against me if my own vassals and landholders have escorted me there.

1055
And I am fully ready to be tried by his law in his court, if I have committed any misdemeanour. But he has banned me from his boroughs and cities, and vills and castles: it would be very unfortunate for me if I were found in any, yet the king has recognised the rights of holy Church. 5275

1056
<<The suspensions do not originate from me but from Pope Alexander for they have done wrong and without right when anointing the Young King (may God bless him), and they do not want to come make amends for this.>> 5280

1057
<<But it was through your efforts>> Reginald replied to him << that the king's prelates, these three, were excommunicated.  And he wants these censures lifted from them , that you absolve them without further delay, since they were suspended and have been proscribed by you.>> 5285


1057
<<But it was at your insistence>> Reginald replied to him,<<that the king's prelates, all three were made excommunicate, and it from this he wants them to be released, and that you should absolve them without further delay since they were suspended and have been proscribed by you.>> 5285

1058
<<I am not denying>> said he [Thomas], <<that it was not done at my request, but they neither sought help from me nor succour, and it is now to our Pope that all three must hasten, because for most just reasons they now fall under his jurisdiction. I will obey and execute his [the Pope’s] orders.>> 5290

1059
The sons of Satan said: <<Now since you are being so foolish the king orders that you must leave his land together with those whom you have brought with you. You have all been expelled.>>
St Thomas was neither frightened nor dismayed by this. He responded to them in this way: <<How beautifully you threaten.>> 5295

1060
<<Never will anyone make me leave this country.>>
<<What!>> they said to him, <<not even if it was the king who was making you go?>>
<<No! I will never again be found overseas. I will leave for no one. It is here you will find me.>>
These words brought on very great anger in them. 5300

1061
<<You have no right to bring me such a message,>> he continued, <<because my lord the king is so loyal and so honest he would never wish to address me in such words and he would refuse to confirm them.>>
<<He will confirm them and we will bring them back to you.>> 5305

1062
St Thomas replied: <<Very much I complaint of his men who sinfully hold our churches by force, and who have battered my men and cut off the tail of my pack horse [sumpter horse] and taken away my barrels of wine with violence, those which my lord the king was conveying to me. 5310

1063
Said Reginald: << If the the men of the sovereign lord of the kingdom have acted badly towards you or done you wrong, why haven’t you made this known immediately to the king who with the counsel of his barons put this right.
Then the saint raising his head replied:  5315

1064
<<If it is necessary to bring witnesses to testify I will tell you, Reginald, that you were present with two hundred mounted warriors. Then the king would concede to me that you must have been seeking vengeance for the wrongs you have done to holy church. I would ask for redress, and he would necessarily agree with me, as it applies to my calling.>> 5320

1065

You have always dishonored him and you continue to dishonor him. <<Not at all,>> said St. Thomas; <<I do not consider him a traitor; I do not seek to cover him with shame, but to increase his honour. However, he allowed me to judge these men on the day when God, between us, established concord and friendship.
1066
I complained to him of these individuals naming them, and he granted me - two hundred witnesses could hear it - to exercise against them the fullness of my rights. He does not meddle with the problems which belong to my clerks and myself; I will judge these men as it is my duty to do.
1067
<<As I myself have complained to him about these men, naming them, and he gave me  permission, within the hearing of two hundred witnesses, that I might take from them my full legal right. He does not meddle with the problems which belong to my clerks and myself; I will judge these men as it is my duty to do.>> 5335

1068
<<I cannot run to court for every misdeed, therefore, as a priest, I will use divine justice against those who do wrong against holy mother Church.>>
<<These are threats.>> they said, <<Vengeance will be taken for them if you do not absolve those whom you have sentenced [with suspension and excommunication].5340

1069
<<If you have come here on behalf of the king, it is not by uttering threats that you will make me more afraid." You can stab here, on my bare neck with a worthless knife; No one will prevent you from doing this.>> He put his hand on his neck. And they left. 5345

1070
<<And these are more than just mere threats.>> shouting very loudly, shamefully defying the holy archbishop. And they ordered by public edict in the name of the king that all must leave immediately from there, as dearly would they pay for it if anyone stayed. 5350

1071
And they ordered the monks that were found therein in the name of the king that they must hold and detain him, for if he were to flee, they would demand from them that they must render to them what was due to deliver him up to them. The saint himself had risen, as he had heard and noted their defiance 5355.

1072
He had followed the knights as far as the door to the chamber when he heard their defiance, because he had heard them very well.
Said St. Thomas to Hugh: <<What did you say? for you must repeat it!>>
They did not say a word to him, as much they left him But he  would rather they had killed and murdered him then. 5360

1073
St. Thomas returned and sat himself don on his bed, becoming such as if he had met a ghost. John of Salisbury then said to him: <<Sire, always always you have rejected our advice; it seems that you have always chosen to follow your own heart. 5365

1074
<<What is it that you want me to do, Master John?>> replied our hero.
<<You should have summoned your council of advisors when the knights came here to talk to you. If only for the reason they had come to deliver upon you the stroke of death. But no one is able to drag you away for your own resolution to follow your own conscience.>> he [John of Salisbury] replied.










References

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Emmanuel Walberg (1936). Les Classiques français du Moyen Age. Librarie Honoré Champion. pp. 159–.
Recueil d'anciens textes bas-latins provençause et française, accompagnés de deux glossaires. 19. Garnier du Pont-Sainte-Maxence- Saint Thomas le Martyr: Franck. 1874. pp. 303–.
William Urry (1999). Thomas Becket: His Last Days. Chapter 4 The Interview at the Palace: Sutton. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-0-7509-2179-4.

St. Thomas of Canterbury, his death and miracles by Edwin A. Abbott pp.
Chapter II: The Breaking Open of the Palace

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 240–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.


Michael Staunton (7 December 2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. Manchester University Press. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.

James Craigie Robertson; Thomas Becket (st., abp. of Canterbury.) (1859). Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, a biography. pp. 268–.

Bocke, Mary Annette, "An Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, the Archbishop of Canterbury By William, a Monk of Canterbury" (1946). Master's Theses. Paper 57.
http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/57 pp. 83-97  §36 §37 §38 §39 §40 §41 §42 §43 §44

Sinclair, Mary Aelred, "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket By William Fitzstephen: (Part Two)" (1944). Master's Theses. Paper 369.

Pearse, Irene T., "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket--Books 5-7" (1944). Master's Theses. Paper 684. [Herbert of Bosham]
http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/684
Book 5 pp.34-
11. Renewal of the King's Wrath and the Arrival of the Executioners
Book 6 pp 39-
1. The knights collect in an armed cohort and pour into the
palace; the Champion of Christ enters the church; the words
of the executioners.
2. The meeting of the Champion of Christ with the executioners;
the point he drives home in speaking to them.
3. The disciple, who wrote these things, gives his reason for
his moroseness in describing thecontest of so mighty a
Champion.
4. The martyrdom and how it was carried out; a mention of a
certain cleric who thrust his arm between the on-coming
sword and the head of the Champion.
5. The Champion's powerful invective under threat of anathema
lest the executioners harm any of his people; the great and
glorious announcement of his martyrdom.

Toutant, Mary Aimee du Sacre-Coeur, "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket By An Anonymous Author Number 2" (1944). Master's Theses. Paper 403. [Anonymous of Lambeth]http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_theses/403
Chapter XLVI p. 103-10
Reason and Manner of his Death

Chapter 78 How the Enemies of God Spoke Evil Against The Holy Archbishop Thomas
Eiríkr Magnússon . Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. KAP. LXXVIII: Cambridge University Press. pp. 522–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.
Eiríkr Magnússon. Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. Chapter 78: Cambridge University Press. pp. 523–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.
https://archive.org/stream/thmassagaerkiby01magngoog#page/n540/mode/2up

Chapter 79 How the Knights Came Back To Their Followers
Eiríkr Magnússon. Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. KAP LXXIX: Cambridge University Press. pp. 532–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.
Eiríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups0: In Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes and Glossary. Chapter 79: Longman. pp. 533–.
https://archive.org/stream/thmassagaerkiby01magngoog#page/n550/mode/2up

Chapter 80 The Death of Archbishop Thomas
Eiríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups0: In Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes and Glossary. KAP. LXXX: Longman. pp. 542–.
iríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups0: In Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes and Glossary. Chapter 80: Longman. pp. 543–.
https://archive.org/stream/thmassagaerkiby01magngoog#page/n560/mode/2up

Benedict of Peterborough - Internet History Sourcebooks Project
https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1170benedict-becket.asp

Gesta Regis Henrici: the Chronicle of the reign of Henry the Second pp. 11-
https://archive.org/stream/gestaregishenric01stub#page/11/mode/1up

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Chapter XXXIX: Whittaker. pp. 317–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 552–.

James J. Spigelman (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. James Spigelman. pp. 257–. ISBN 978-0-646-43477-3.

Edward Grim's account
Materials for the History of Thomas Becket Vol II pp 430- 
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist02robe#page/430/mode/1up

John Holmes Agnew; Walter Hilliard Bidwell (1854). Eclectic Magazine: Foreign Literature. Volume XXXI No. 1 (From Quartely Review ed.). The Murder of Thomas a Becket: Leavitt, Throw and Company. pp. 28–.
https://archive.org/stream/eclecticmagazin37unkngoog#page/n44/mode/1up/search/becket

Life and times of Thomas Becket (1878) by Froude, James Anthony, pp. 104-
https://archive.org/stream/lifetimesofthoma00frou#page/104/mode/1up/

Thursday, 1 December 2016

Garnier: Court Case - John the Marshal v. Thomas Becket archbishop, Northampton, October 1164

277
Mes ainc pur ceo li reis nel pot de rien fleschir,
Pur ceo k’il ne s’en pot hors del païs fuïr.
A Norhamtune a fet sun concile establir,
E prelaz e barons par ban i fet venir,
1385 Trestuz ces ki en chief de lui deivent tenir

278
A cel concile sunt cumunalment alé
Li conte e li baron, eveskë e abé.
L’arceveske Thomas ne l’ad pas refusé
Ke il n’i seit alez od cel altre barné ;
1390 Mes li ber i alat od grant humilité.
279
En ses ostels fet orent lur chevals herbergier
Li reial, ki bien sorent tut le conseil plenier.
E il a dit al rei n’ira a curt plaidier,
Tresqu’il li avra fet tuz ses ostels voidier.
1395 Dunc en furent geté cheval e escuier.
280
Li ber i ert sumuns a jor numeement,
K’il fust prez a respundre iluekes en present.
El regne ot fet li reis un establissement
(As barons del païs turne a grant grievement) :
1400 Ke chascon pert sa curt par un fals serement.
281
Se nul plaidast de terre en la curt son seignur,
Od sa gent i vendreit a sun premerain jor.
E se l’um li fesist de sun plet nul demur,
A la justise alast, si fesist sa clamur ;
1405 Ariere revenist, od lui dui jureür.
282
En la curt sun segnur jurast, sei tierce main,
[44] Que la curt li oüst esluinié sun dreit plain.
Par itel serement, u desleal u sain,
Alast cil en la curt al segnur plus procein,
1410 Tant k’en la curt venist al segnur suverain.
283
Johan li Mareschal pleideiot ensement.
En la curt seint Thomas clamot un tienement ;
Pur ceo k’il n’i ot dreit e n’espleita neient,
Sa curt li ad tolue par itel serement.
1415 Al rei s’en est clamez, ki quiert sun grievement.
284
La fist li reis sumundre seint Thomas pur pleidier,
K’il i fust prez al jor, e pur sei derainier
De ceo k’il n’ot tenu Johan sun dreit plenier.
Il fu emferms al jur e ne pot chevalchier ;
1420 A dous des suens a fet le jor essunïer.
285
Cel esoine ne volt li reis pas greanter ;
Pur ceo fist l’arceveske a Norhantune aler.
E li ber i ala, ainc n’i volt eschiver.
A Seint Andreu se fist as moines osteler.
1425 L’endemain li covint un mult grief fes porter.
286
Car al rei est alé le cungié demander
D’aler a l’apostoile, ceo li dist, ultre mer :
Car Rogier d’Everwiz feseit sa cruiz porter
Par tut en sa paroisse ; nel volt suffrir li ber ;
1430 E apelé en orent, si l’i estuet aler.
287
En l’endemain pur ceo al rei Henri ala,
E a lui errament le cungié demanda
D’aler a l’apostoile. Li reis dit n’i ira,
Mes de cele sursise errament respundra.
1435 Il dit k’il iert enferms, e k’il s’esunia.
288
Ainc essunies ne mals ne li pot rien valeir.
Li reis dit k’il en volt sun jugement aveir.
Il vont al jugement ; n’i voldrent dreit veeir :
L’arceveske unt jugié, cume gent senz saveir,
[45] 1440 A duner en merci treis cenz livres d’aveir.
289
Desdire les voleit li bers del jugement.
Mais mult li unt prïé trestuit communement
Qu’il laist cel’ire ester, nes desdie neent,
Face la volenté le rei e sun talent ;
1445 Einsi purra trover vers lui ameisement.
290
Le jugement li unt fait einsi graanter
E de ces treis cenz livres pleges al rei trover.
Erramment les trova, n’en pout par el passer.
E quant trové les out, sil funt en plait entrer,
1450 E del plait cel Johan le vunt achaisuner.
291
Ne volt iluec respundre, ço lur respunt li ber ;
Car cil fu en sa curt, e ne solt pas mustrer
Qu’um li fesist nul tort ; e quant s’en volt turner,
Ne volt sur altre livre le serement jurer
1455 For desur un tropier, qu’il i fist aporter.
292
N’est pas us del païs que l’en jurt sur tropier,
Mais a quatre ewangelies deit l’um agenuillier.
Mais par tel serement quida Deu enginnier ;
Mais dedenz cel an porent sa char li ver mangier,
1460 E les cors ses dous fiz, qui li erent mult chier.

Translation 

277 [part]
At Northampton he [the king] caused his council to be convened, And the prelates and barons by ban [edict] he made come there all those who owed him feudal duty holding [land] as a tenant in chief from him. 1385

[Ban = personal writ of summons to a Great Council under the great seal from the king to each tenant-in-chief i.e. the prelates and magnates]

278
To this council commonly came earls and barons, bishops and abbots. Archbishop Thomas did not refuse to go there with the other barons. But our good hero came there in great humility. 1390

279
In his guesthouse lodged there together their horses were the men of the king's party who well knew of his [the king's] plan in full. [Going to the king] he said he would not come to his court to plead as long as they did not vacate all his lodging places. Then the squires together with their horses were thrown out. 1395

280
The good man was summoned upon the appointed day on which he was ready to answer with his presence. The king had published an ordinance throughout the kingdom (which had stirred up a great grievance amongst the barons of the country) whereby any one of them could lose their court by means of false sworn testimony. 1400

[This procedure came to be known as the Assize of Novel Disseisin]

281
If anyone might make a plea [a claim] for land in the court of his lord,  he should come there together with his people on the first day [of the hearing]. And there, if any one delayed his plea, he might then go to a justice, to whom he could make his complaint; and come back again bringing with him two compurgators [jurors/sworn witnesses].1405

282
There in the court of his lord they could swear, the three of them [the plaintiff, as the third hand, and his two compurgators], that the court had deprived him of his legal right. By such an oath, whether false [by perjury] or true, he might thus [by this means] take his case to the court of the next higher lord, and so on [all the way] till he might [by appeal] come before the court of his sovereign lord [the king].

283
John the Marshal had made such a plea. In the court of St. Thomas he made a claim  for a tenement for which he had neither the legal right to, nor could he gain anything there. He therefore now made a claim for it by such an oath [using the procedure of Novel Disseisin] to the king, who bore a grievance against him [Thomas]. 1415

284
That done the king summoned St Thomas to make his plea, requiring that he come before him on an appointed day to defend his case why he had not granted John his full legal right. That day he [Thomas] was ill and could not ride a horse. He sent two of his own men to make his essoin [lawful excuse of his absence]. 1420

285
This essoin [legal excuse for anbsence] the king did not want to allow; therefore for this he summoned the archbishop to come to Northampton. And our hero came there as he had no wish to evade it. He lodged with the monks of St. Andrews. The day after they admitted that he seemed to be bearing a great grief, 1425

286
because he had gone to the king to ask for leave to go overseas, this he told him, to go [to make a complaint] to the Pope about Roger d'Éveque [Roger Pont d'Éveque archbishop of York] who had been having borne before him his cross throughout his [Becket's] province. But our hero did not want to allow him to do this and they had appealed for him to go there. 1430

287
For this he had gone to king Henry on the following day, and had immediately asked him for leave to go to the Pope. The king told him that he was not to go there, but should now immediately answer the [John the Marshal's] case without delay. He said that he had been ill and that he had essoined himself,
1435

288
But neither essoins nor sickness would prevail. The king said that he wanted to have his judgement thereon. They arrived at a sentence; neither would they see lawful right in this. They judged archbishop , like uneducated people, by giving him a fine in a sum of three hundred pounds..

[£300 was the equivalent of 40 year's pay for a master mason.]

289
Our hero wanted to refute this sentence but they all together forcefully begged him to renounce his anger and not gainsay them at all. But that he should do the king's will and follow his wishes. 1445
 
290
Thus they made him submit to the sentence, and for this he had to find three hundred pounds of pledges for the king. He found them immediately as he could not evade this. And after he had found them, they made him enter a plea [in his defence in the court] in the case which John [the Marshal] had brought which they were going now to accuse him of. 1450

291
Our hero did not wish to give a response to them [there] about this, as this man [John the marshal] had been in his court and was not able to show that anyone had done him a wrong; and when in turn he came to put his case there he was unwilling to swear the oath on any other book except a troper which he had brought with his there. 1455

292
It is not the custom of the country that one swears the oath upon a troper, rather one must kneel down before [a book of] the four gospels. But by such an oath he thought he could deceive God. But inside a year the worms were able to eat his flesh, and also the bodies of his two sons who were very dear to him. 1460


References



R. C. van Caenegem (1991). English Lawsuits from William I to Richard I Volume 2 - Case 420 7th-8th Oct 1164 Volume 107 Selden Society. pp. 423 left - 433 right
John the Marshal v Thomas Becket
Originals + Translations
A. Herbert of Boseham   Materials Becket iii  250-252
B. William Fitzstephen   Materials Becket iii 50-51
C   Anonymous 1 Materials Becket iv 40-41
D   Roger of Hovendon Chron i 224-225
E Edward Grim Materials Becket ii 390-392
F William of Canterbury Materials Becket i 30-31
G Ralph de Diceto i p. 313
H Guernes fe Pont-Saint-Maxence Walberg 1936 pp 43-45

Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket, in Icelandic Vol. 1, with English translation by Eiríkur Magnússon.
Chapter 23 The Meeting of Northampton

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.
Rule in Glanvill

Glanvill Book XII Chapter 7

David Houard (1776). Traités sur les coutumes anglo-normandes, publiés en Angleterre, depuis le onzième, jusqu'au quatorzième siècle. Glanvill Book XII - Cap 7: chez Le Boucher le jeune. pp. 544–.

Ranulf de Glanville (1812). tr Beames, ed. A Translation of Glanville. Book XII Chapter 7: W. Reed. pp. 289–.

Cap 7.

¶Probantur autem curie ipse de recto defecisse in hunc modum. Conquerente autem se eo qui petit vicecomiti in comitatu et breue domini Regis afferente: mittet vice∣comes comes ad curiam ips•m die qua litigatoris bus a domino ipsius curie statuta fuerit; ali∣quem seruientem, vt et ille coram quatuor vel pluribus legalibus militibus eiusdem comitatus qui ex• precepto vicecomiti••llic ad∣erunt audiat et videat probationem ipsius petentis scilicet curi•m ipsam ei de recto de∣fecisse in placito ipso Quod et ipse petens si• esse, suo iuramento et cum duobus aliis id audientibus et intelligentibus, et cum eo iu∣rantibus probabit. Sub tali ergo solēpnitate• solent loquele a quibusdam curu• ad comi∣tatus transferri. Et ibi de nouo tractari et ter∣minari sine contradictione vel recuperatione ipsarum curiarum, quam inde habere possūt ipsarum curiarum domini siue heredes quan∣tum ad'illud placitum. Sin autem priusquam curia aliqua predicto modo probetur de recto defecisse loquela aliqua ab ea ad supe∣riorem curiam trahatur, poterit dominus al∣lius Curie die placiti curiam suam ea ratio∣ne repetere quod non dum probata fuerit de recto defecisse, et ita eam per iudicium retro habebit nisi ibi probetur de recto eam vt dictum est defecisse. Sciendum tamen quod si ad capitalem Curiam domini Regis ita tracta fuerit aliqua loquela, frustra vendica∣bit ibi quis die placiti Curiam suam, nisiter∣rio die ante, coram legalibus hominibus eam vendicauerit. Nullo autem die posito ipsi petenti vnde ipse queri possit, et iuste de dilatione ei facta, sufficit ei falsare Curiam ipsam sub forma prescripta quocunque lo∣co voluerit in feodo ipso. Si dominus nul∣lam habuerit reseantisam super feodum ip∣sum sicut ipsi domino licet Curiam suam ibi tenere, et ipsi petenti diem ponere quo∣cunque loco voluent super feodum ipsum. Extra autem feodum ipsum non licer ei de iure.

David Crouch (2 March 2016). William Marshal. Routledge. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-1-317-28309-6.