Tuesday, 30 December 2014

The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

I. S. Robinson (19 July 1990). The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-31922-5.

Robert Somerville (1977). Pope Alexander III and the Council of Tours (1163): A Study of Ecclesiastical Politics and Institutions in the Twelfth Century. Abbots and Cardinals at the Council of Tours 1163: University of California Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-520-03184-5.

Johannes Matthias Brixius (1912). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181.

Cardinal William of Pavia
MATENGO, O.Cist., Guglielmo
Cardinal Deacon of st Mary via lata
Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli,

Cardinal  Henry of Pisa
MORICOTTI, O.Cist., Errico (?-1179)

Cardinal Deacon Hyacinth
BOBONE, Giacinto
Hyacinth Bobo, cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin
Became Popes Celestine III
I. S. Robinson (19 July 1990). The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-31922-5.
Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger (1842). A History of the Church: Translated from the German of the Rev. J.J. Ig. Döllinger,. C. Dolman and T. Jomes. pp. 24–. Text ". ..." ignored (help)

Otto, Cardinal Deacon of Tulliano
OTTONE (?-1174/1175)

Cardinal Bishop Walter of Albano

Octavian - Antipope Victor IV
Cardinal Manfred
Manfredo, O.S.B. (?-1178)
Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro

Hubald, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia
ALLUCINGOLI, O.Cist., Ubaldo (ca. 1097/1110-1185)

Cardinal Deacons

Cardinals Deacons held the lowest rank amongst the Cardinals. The other two ranks were Cardinal Bishops and Cardinal Priests. Many cardinals were deacons, and were not fully ordained priests. If they were elected Pope in conclave, they had rapidly to be ordained as priest, bishop and then pope (bishop of Rome). Many Cardinal Deacons were selected by the Pope from amongst the officials of the Roman Curia, rewarded for their service to the Church or skill at diplomacy or administration. In the early days of the Church there were seven deacons each who who administered one of the seven districts of the Roman diocese,There were a further seven deacons who assisted in the papal household.  By the 10th and 11th centuries the number of deaconries in Rome had increased to 18, and in Urban II's time a Cardinal Deacon was assigned to each of them.

Chronicle of Robert of Torigni

The Chronicle of Robert of Torigni

Richard Howlett. Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I. Volume 4 Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-05229-0.

The "Gesta Normannorum ducum" of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, 1: Introduction and Books I-IV; 2: Books V-VIII. by Elisabeth M. C. van Houts
Felice Lifshitz
Vol. 72, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), pp. 572-574

Robert of Torigni - Wikipedia

Other Chronicles

List of English chronicles - Wikipedia

Annales Monastici. ANNALES PRIORATUS DE WIGORNIA: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green. 1869. pp. 380–.

Wednesday, 24 December 2014

Becket and the Templars

During his reign and his dispute with Thomas Becket.King Henry II relied heavily on many occasions on the advice of the Templars. 

The Templars and the Vexin, Custody of Gisors Castle

Gisors castle was given to the French King Louis VII in 1144. Gisors was to be given to back to England when the young children -three and five years old- of the kings were to get married. In the meantime it was held in trust by the Templars from 1158. In 1161 the children were married and Gisors was taken back by the King of England Henri II Plantagenet who completed its construction.

It was by this act that the loyalty and partiality to Henry II of the Templars was demonstrated, when they transferred the Vexin castles to him, following the marriage of Princess Margaret of France to Prince Henry of England (the Young King). However for this treachery they were banished from  France by the French king.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.


Emilie Amt (1 January 1993). The Accession of Henry II in England: Royal Government Restored, 1149-1159. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-0-85115-348-3.

Jeffrey Strickland (2012). Knights of the Cross. Lulu.com. pp. 152–. ISBN 978-1-105-35162-4.

Diceto i 303

Templars' involvement at the Council of Clarendon, January 1164

Richard of Hastings and Hostes [Hoston] of St-Omer.
These two Templars were present at the council of Clarendon in January 1164.

Both were Grand Priors of the Temple in England
     Hoston de Saint-Omer (1153–1155)
     Richard de Hastings (1155–1185)

During the proceedings at the Council of Clarendon 1164 they were sent by Henry to Becket. Richard de Hastings throwing himself on his knees before Becket and with profuse tears and entreaties attempted strongly to reconcile the differences between Henry II and Thomas Becket. They begged him to give his adherence to the Customs that the King had drawn up.

Charles G. Addison (1842). The history of the Knights Templars, The Temple Church and the Temple. Longman S. S. S. S. pp. 110–.

William Holden Hutton. Thomas Becket. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-1-107-66171-4.

Hoston de St-Omer
[Aka Osto de Saint-Omer, Toston de St. Omer]

Becket 1170

As they did for the papacy,  Templars regularly acted as messengers for kings and nobles. Like the friars in the thirteenth century and later, the Military Orders could be conveniently used for secret missions because they were inconspicuous. Templars and Hospitallers were always on the road, preaching and collecting alms from the faithful, and because they were religious men they were less likely than secular messengers to be stopped by an enemy and searched or even imprisoned. In 1170 one of Archbishop Thomas Becket's correspondents warned him that the Templars who brought him news were not simple and trustworthy religious men but were actually the agents of his enemy, King Henry II of England.

MTB Epistola 673

Correspondence of Thomas Becket Volume 2, Letter 296
Written from Normandy by a well-informed supporter  (possibly Master Ernulf, formerly keeper of Becket's seal):

but even to God himself, rather than to make peace with you. Therefore do not set your hope in justice or believe those Templars, who do not walk in simplicity, but in fact, desiring to follow the king's will rather than yours, they bring nothing but falsehood from the king and the father of lies to deceive you. For whatever the king does in your regard is deception and villainy; but , if I may say it by your leave, he decievs the foolish with empty words, so that he may meanwhile make better provision for himself and lay greater traps and stronger nets for you with the passing of time. What therefore will you do, most unfortunate of men, if that which you have sighed for so long should be taken from you in a short space of time?

1155 the Knights Templar build their Temple Church in Fleet Street

In 1154 under King Henry II of England, the Grand Master of Knights Templar (André de Montbard) superintended the Masons. The Knights Templar built their Temple in Fleet Street. The Knights Templar moved their London temple to the new site between Fleet Street and the Thames in 1161.

King Henry II  granted the Templars land across England, including some territory by Castle Baynard on the River Fleet, where they built a round church, patterned after the Knights Templar headquarters on Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Later a chapel dedicated to St. Thomas is also erected  near to this site. 

Emilie Amt (1993). The Accession of Henry II in England: Royal Government Restored, 1149-1159. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-0-85115-348-3.

Robin Griffith-Jones; David Park (2010). The Temple Church in London: History, Architecture, Art. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-1-84383-498-4.

Robin Griffith-Jones; David Park (2010). The Temple Church in London: History, Architecture, Art. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-1-84383-498-4.

Saxons, Knights & Lawyers in the Inner Temple;
archaeological excavations in Church Court & Hare Court
by Jonathan Butler (2005)
Pre-Construct Archaeology Limited Monograph No. 4 

Knights of Saint Thomas, Acre

Knights of Saint Thomas - Wikipedia

Henry II's Will and Last Testament 

Throughout his reign Henry II held a very high regard for both the Templars and Hospitallers. A number of clauses in his Will and Last testament confirm this.

Barlow, Frank. (1988)

Wilfred Lewis Warren (1973). Henry II. University of California Press. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-0-520-02282-9.

Foedera, conventiones, literæ, et cujuscunque g...

Henry II and Financial Relations with the Templars

King Henry II of England  primarily used the Order to accumulate crusading funds in Jerusalem.

Frederick Maurice Powicke. Essays in Medieval History. Manchester University Press. pp. 147–. 

Ch Petit-Dutaillis; Georges Lefebvre (1969). Studies and Notes Supplementary to Stubbs' Constitutional History. Manchester University Press. pp. 363–. ISBN 978-0-7190-0341-7.

The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown
Eleanor Ferris
The American Historical Review
Vol. 8, No. 1 (Oct., 1902), pp. 1-17
Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical Association

Book - The Knights Templar


Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

W. L. Warren (1977). Henry II. On The Vexin 1158: University of California Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-520-03494-5.

W. L. Warren (1977). Henry II. On the Vexin 1160: University of California Press. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-520-03494-5.

Tuesday, 23 December 2014

Ritual, Behaviour and Symbolic Communication in the dispute between Thomas Becket and King Henry II - The History Student.

An article concerning the dispute between Becket and Henry II in which it is seen that the continuation of many of traditional forms of political communication, including the use of symbolic rhetoric and items in the conduct of rituals, and also the deliberate staging of emotions is found in the hagiographical records of the dispute.

Ritual, Behaviour and Symbolic Communication in the dispute between Thomas Becket and King Henry II - The History Student.