Saturday, 24 May 2014

Becket's Last Month December 1170

Annus millenus centenus septuagenus
Primus erat, primas corruit [quo ruit] ense Thomas.

December 1170

 S  M Tu W  Th  F  S
       1  2  3  4  5
 6  7  8  9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31
 





Becket's Itinerary December 1170

Sails from Wissant, North France

Date
Location
Reference
1st Dec
Lands at Sandwich
MTB iii 476
2nd-10th Dec?
Canterbury
MTB iii 121, 478
11th Dec
Rochester
MTB iii 122
12th Dec
Winchester Palace, Southwark
MTB iii 122-3
13th-17th Dec
Harrow Manor
Gesta abb. S. Albani (Rolls Series) i 184
 17th-18th Dec
Southwark
Diceto i 342
19th-24th Dec
Canterbury
MTB iii 124-6
25th-29th Dec
Canterbury
MTB iii 484-95, 132


Murdered

References

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. Chapter 11 - The End of the Road: University of California Press. pp. 225–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.


Materials for the History of Thomas Becket,  Volume 3:-

Volume 3 contains the lives compiled by William Fitzstephen (pp 1-154) and Herbert of Bosham.(pp. 155-557)

Online Electronic Versions - Cambridge University Press

Rolls Series on Archive.org

Volume III. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6

Gallica BNF
Thomas Walsingham; Matthew Paris (1867). Gesta abbatum monasterii Sancti Albani: A.D. 793-1290. Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. pp. 184–.


Historiae Anglicanae Scriptores X :   Radulphus de Diceto.. typis Jacobi Flesher, sumptibus Cornelii Bee. 1652. pp. 554–.

Wissant [Witsand, White Sands, Wyssant] is a fishing port about 18 kilometres north of Boulogne in north France in territory ruled by the Counts of Boulogne. Becket made his way here on 24th November 1170 hoping to catch a ship with his followers for Dover. The winds, however were not favourable for an immediate crossing, and he had to wait for several days till conditions improved

Wisan


During his wait Milo, the dean of Boulogne, chaplain to the Count of Boulogne, was sent by the Counct to warn Becket that he had heard there were armed men anticipating his landing in the ports of England, waiting either to arrest or to kill him. This danger was confirmed by the crew of ships which had arrive at Wissant from Dover.

There was a full moon on the 27th November which meant that the tidal range would have been quite high on or around this date.

On the day before he departed Becket sent across to England the letters of censure for the archbishop of York and of excommunication for the bishops of London and Salisbury, letters that he had received from the pope. Becket by publishing these letters, when he did this, was exerting his rights as papal legate to England as well as being Primate of All England. Many have interpreted his action as contributing significantly to his undoing, his murder in Canterbury cathedral about one month after his landing. From his point of view, however, Becket needed to exert his authority swiftly and effectively after his long absence, even well before he arrived back in England. Others have seen that his action more as not giving those concerned a fair hearing. Becket's behaviour in this matter may have the prime cause of king Henry's anger which led to Becket's murder by the four knights.

Becket set sail for England on 1st December 1170 together with his following, but this time directing the captain of the vessel to make for Sandwich instead.

Herbert of Bosham
"Duobus tribusve diebus exactis post festum beati Andreae"
"Departed two or three days after the feast of St. Andrew [30th November]"

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket Cambridge University Press. pp. 476–. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6.

William FitzStephen
Says Becket departed for England on Tuesday 1st December.

Becket said that he crossed over on the day after his messengers [Idonea the Nun and a clerk called Osbern] had carried the letter of censure for the archbishop of York and the letters of excommunication from the pope of the two bishops, of London and Salisbur [presumably this event was 30th November].

After they had received their letters the bishops of York, London and Salisbury arranged for the the coast to be guarded by the king's officers, heavily armed knights,  namely Raoul de Broc, Gervais de Cornhill who was the sheriff of Kent and Reginald de Warenne.

As the craft in which Becket was travelling approached Sandwich town it sailed up the narrow channel of the river Stour. As it did so his cross was raised up high for all on the river banks to see. The news of  his arrival at Sandwich travelled rapidly to Dover, and soon after the armed group of knights who had been waiting to arrest him there rushed over to Sandwich.

Soon after Becket had set foot on land the armed knights approached him and his followers. John of Oxford (Dean of Salisbury) who was present at the king's order, told the knights that there should be no violence in the king's name, nor were they to interfere with Becket. He persuaded the knights to lay down their arms. However the sheriff did go on to ask Becket whether there were any foreigners amongst his party. There was one, Simon archdeacon of Sens. The sheriff demanded from Simon an oath of allegiance to the king, an oath saying that he would obey the king against all men, not even excepting the pope or any other. Becket said that he could not allow this oath to be made on the grounds that this might create a precedent which the clerics of England might be forced to undertake, especially if this were to be taken by members of his household. The officials were too few in number to enforce their will upon him in this matter considering that a large throng of the people of Sandwich, the archbishop's own loyal vassals who had gathered to welcome him and who were much stronger in number.

Road to Canterbury


On the morning of the day after he landed Becket made his way along the road to Canterbury (a branch of Watling Street) some 12 miles distance. As he approached the city he was met by a large crowd lining the road offering prayers of thanksgiving for his safe arrival and begging for his blessing. [Is this nothing less than a hagiographical reference, a comparison with Christ riding into Jerusalem on a donkey on Palm Sunday?] The cathedral building itself was decked with coloured hangings. There was feasting and rejoicing. Becket entered and sat down on his episcopal throne where he preached ironically a sermon on the topic of Hebrews 13:4 - "For here we have no everlasting city, but seek for that city which is to come". Afterwards all the monks of Christchurch queued up to receive the kiss of peace from him.

The bishops themselves were no longer in Canterbury, but had gone to Dover to catch a ship to cross the Channel to complain to the king about Becket and what he had done.

After spending about a week at Canterbury Becket sent a message to Henry the Young King who was at Winchester at the time saying that he would like to come visit him to do homage to the sovereign of the land. He sent two valuable destriers as a present for the Young King who had been his protegé in earlier times. 

References


John Guy (2012). Thomas Becket: Warrior, Priest, Rebel, Victim: A 900-Year-Old Story Retold. Chapter 26 Return to Canterbury: Penguin Books Limited. pp. 397–. ISBN 978-0-14-193328-3.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. Chapter II End of the Road: University of California Press. pp. 225–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

John Morris (1859). The life and martyrdom of saint Thomas Becket archb. of Canterbury. Longman, Brown. pp. 300–.

W. Hutton (1899) p. 240

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Chapter XIII: The Return and Murder. pp. 253–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.  Chapter XXII The Martyrdom: J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 530–.

Henry Hart Milman (1860). Life of Thomas à Becket. Sheldon & company. pp. 214–.

William Urry (1999). Thomas Becket: His Last Days. Sutton. ISBN 978-0-7509-2179-4

The Court, household, and itinerary of King Henry II
by R. W. Eyton (1878)
pp. 149-

W.H. Hutton (1899) pp. 219-

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, archbishop of Canterbury: A biography. Chapter XIII: J. Murray. pp. 253–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2. History or the contest between Thomas à Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and Henry II, king of England, chiefly consisting of translations of contemporary letters. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 540–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2. Letter Becket to Pope Alexander December 1170, written soon after his landing: J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 539–.

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Chapter XXXVIII: Whittaker. pp. 293–.


Michael Staunton (2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. 45 Thomas is prevented from visiting the Young King: Manchester University Press. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.


An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas. Becket--Books 5-7.
Herbert of Bosham
trans Irene T. Pearse. (1944)
Loyola University Chicago.

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket Cambridge University Press. pp.476-. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6.

Becket Materials 3. 476-
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50320f/f513.image

of Bosham Herbert; John Allen Giles (1846). Herberti de Boseham S. Thomæ Cantuariensis clerici a secretis opera quæ extant omnia: Liber melorum, epistolæ, &c. apud J.H. Parker. pp. 315–.

Herbert of Bosham
Corpus Coporum
University of Zurich
Patrologia Latina: Tomus 190 col 1257- 

Chapters of the 5th Volume
November 30th 1170

6. The Archbishop sets sail; his entrance and reception by the
populace of England.
7. Activities carried out upon the Archbishop's return to the
land.
8. The second instigation of the bishops against the Archbishop.
Reasons.
9. The Archbishop's sermon and activity on Christmas Day.
10. The disciple who wrote these things withdraws from the
Archbishop. Reasons.
11. The renewal of the king's wrath against the Archbishop and
the arrival of the military executioners


Chapters of the Sixth Volume
1. The knights collect in an armed cohort and pour into the
palace; the Champion of Christ enters the church; the words
of the executioners.
2. The meeting of the Champion of Christ with the executioners;
the point he drives home in speaking to them.
3. The disciple, who wrote these things, gives his reason for
his moroseness in describing the 'contest of so mighty a
Champion.
4. The martyrdom and how it was carried out; a mention of a
certain cleric who thrust his arm between the on-coming
sword and the head of the Champion.
5.· The Champion's powerful invective•under threat of anathema
lest the executioners harm any of his people; the great and
glorious announcement of his martyrdom.
6. The disciple again offers excuses for his prolixity in describing
the martyrdom.
7. The disciple's reason for willingly approaching the description
of the final end of the martyrdom, even though against
his will.
8. The final moments of Becket; the number or soldiers who took
part in the execution.
9. Becket's wonderful virtue of patience and the unprecedented
barbarism of the crime.
10. The spoils and garments of the priest divided among the soldiers;
the hero s hair-shirts found and cast aside; some
strike their breasts silently repeating to one another, "Indeed,
this was a just man. "
11. Within fifteen days from his death, the martyrdom is known
throughout the Holy Land of Jerusalem; how the news is made
known.
12. A brief treatment on the harmony between the death of Our
Lord and that of the anointed of the Lord; the assurance
that this harmony will be treated more fully and with more
attention at the end of this historical treatise.
13. The author takes up happenings after the martyrdom.
14. The appearance and preservation of the dead body after the
martyrdom.
15. What took place on the day following the martyrdom while
the body was still not entombed; how the monks in order to
wash his body, as was the custom, took off his garments and
found his whole body covered with hair-shirts; facts about
the tomb, the manner and place of burial, and the year of
his age reckoned from the Incarnation of Our Lord.

John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis opera omnia. Nunc primum in unum collegit et cum codicibus manuscriptis: Epistolae. Epistola CCC: J. H. Parker. pp. 240–.

Letter Becket to Pope Alexander Dec 1170

Epistola XXVII
Saint Thomas (à Becket); John Allen Giles (1846). Epistolae Sancti Thomae Cantuariensis. Apud Whittaker et socios. pp. 81–.

Epistola DCCXXIII
James Craigie Robertson; Joseph Brigstocke Sheppard (1885). Materials for the history of Thomas Becket Volume 7. Longman. pp. 401–.

Translation
Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.  J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 539–.

Garnier - Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence)

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); trans. Janet Shirley (1975). Garnier's Becket Phillimore.  ISBN 978-0-85033-200-1

Chapter 8 : Return to England
Chapter 9 : Martyrdom
Lines 4581-4950
Stanzas  917-990

"La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr : Guernes, de Pont-Sainte-Maxence, 12th cent.  pp 154-66

Thomas Saga

Eiríkr Magnússon. Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Icelandic. Cambridge University Press. Volume I pp. 489–. Chapter LXXIII How Saint Thomas returneth to England and home to Canterbury. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.


Other References

Henry Hart Milman (1860). Life of Thomas à Becket. Sheldon & company. pp. 214–.
Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, Volume iii, pp. 118-.
William Fitzstephen

An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket (Part Two)
by William Fitzstephen trans. Mary Aelred Sinclair (1944)
Loyola University Chicago 57-

James J. Spigelman (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. James Spigelman. pp. 241–. ISBN 978-0-646-43477-3.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 225–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Michael Staunton (2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. Manchester University Press. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.

Eiríkr Magnússon . Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket in IcelandicVolume 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 485–. ISBN 978-1-108-04921-4.
https://archive.org/stream/thmassagaerkiby01magngoog#page/n507/mode/1up




Friday, 23 May 2014

From Fréteval Jul 22nd to Becket setting sail for England Nov 30th 1170

From the Reconciliation with Henry at Fréteval 22nd July 1170 to Becket setting sail for England on November 30th 1170.

References




The Court, household, and itinerary of King Henry II
by R. W. Eyton (1878)
pp. 141-2
https://archive.org/stream/cu31924083944029#page/n160/mode/1up

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.  Chapter XXI: The King's Violation of His Engagements: J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 510–.


S. Thomas of Canterbury Hutton, William Holden
W.H. Hutton (1899) pp. 210-8

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, archbishop of Canterbury: A biography. J. Murray. pp. 242–.

An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas. Becket--Books 5-7.
Herbert of Bosham
trans Irene T. Pearse. (1944)
Loyola University Chicago.
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1683&context=luc_theses

Chapters of the Fifth Volume
1. Reconciliation between the king and the Archbishop.
2. The Archbishop sends envoys to the king. Reasons.
3. The Archbishop's first meeting with the king after the reconciliation.
Reasons.
4. The Archbishop's second meeting with the king after the reconciliation.
Reasons.
5. Preparation for the return to our country; our activity in
England through envoys before the return; the news which we
received at the very point of our departure; the words of
the disciple who wrote these things to the Archbishop; the
Archbishop's answer.

James Craigie Robertson . Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (Canonized by Pope Alexander III, AD 1173). Cambridge University Press. pp. 465-76  ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6.

Becket Materials 3. 465-76
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50320f/f502.image

of Bosham Herbert; John Allen Giles (1846). Herberti de Boseham S. Thomæ Cantuariensis clerici a secretis opera quæ extant omnia: Liber melorum, epistolæ, &c. apud J.H. Parker. pp. 303–15.

Herbert of Bosham
Corpus Coporum
University of Zurich
Patrologia Latina: Tomus 190 col 1949-

Herbertus_de_Boseham_cps2, Vita S. Thomae, 5c
Herbertus_de_Boseham_cps2, Vita S. Thomae, 2e
Herbertus_de_Boseham_cps2, Vita S. Thomae, 3e
Herbertus_de_Boseham_cps2, Vita S. Thomae, 5d, p43
Herbertus_de_Boseham_cps2, Vita S. Thomae, 5d, p0


Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2. History or the contest between Thomas à Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and Henry II, king of England, chiefly consisting of translations of contemporary letters. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 494–537.

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Volume II - Chapter XXXVII: Whittaker. pp. 269–97.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 208–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

James J. Spigelman (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. James Spigelman. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-646-43477-3.


Jeremy Collier (1841). An Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain  W. Straker. pp. 27–.

Henry Hart Milman (1860). Life of Thomas à Becket. Sheldon & company. pp. 201–.



Saint Thomas (à Becket) (1845). Opera. Parker. pp. 272–.

Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, Volume iii, pp. 107-18.
William Fitzstephen
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50320f/f144.image

An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket (Part Two)
by William Fitzstephen trans. Mary Aelred Sinclair (1944)
Loyola University Chicago pp. 42-57

W. L. Warren (1977). Henry II. University of California Press. pp. 111. ISBN 978-0-520-03494-5.


 

Tuesday, 20 May 2014

Herbert of Bosham: Council of Westminster 1163

Herbert of Bosham Annotated Translation Part II
Life of Saint Thomas
pp. 47-65

Book 3 Chapters 23-27

23. King Declares in favor of the Peace of His People
24. The Archbishop declares in favor of the Liberty of the Church
25. The King Demands from the Archbishop the Return of Certain Fortifications; Some of the Bishops Desert Him 
26. The Bishops Desert Their Archbishop
27. Those Wise Who Do Evil

Materials III pp 266- Herbert of Bosham Liber III Cap 23-27
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50320f/f303.image

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket,  Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–. ISBN 978-1-108-04927-6.

Patres ecclesiae anglicanae : Thomas Cantuariensis. J.-H. Parker. 1845. pp. 102–.

Herbertus de Boseham (1845). Opera ... omnia (etc.). Parker. pp. 102–.

Patrologia Latina Volume 190 Cols 1129-36
Universität Zürich Corpus Corporum
Herbert of Bosham Liber III

18. QUALITER REX ALLEGAT PRO POPULI SUI PACE.
http://goo.gl/ZstCGG
http://goo.gl/Och424

19.DE MUNITIONIBUS QUAS REX AB ARCHIPRAESULE REPETIT ET EPISCOPIS EUM DESERENTIBUS.
http://goo.gl/yxS7j7
http://goo.gl/slXK46
http://goo.gl/nDruK6

Migne (1854). Patrologiae cursus completus: sive Bibliotheca universalis. 18: J. P. Migne. Col 1129–36.
Chapters 18 - 19

Quadrilogus


William Holden Hutton (1899). S. Thomas of Canterbury. D. Nutt. pp. 44–.
https://archive.org/stream/sthomascanterbu02huttgoog#page/n52/mode/1up


David Charles Douglas; George William Greenaway (1996). English Historical Documents, 1042-1189. EHD #124. Herbert of Bosham: the council of Westminster (October 1163). Psychology Press. pp. 831–3. ISBN 978-0-415-14367-7.

Materials IV, 299
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k50321s/f332.image







Monday, 19 May 2014

The Letter - Etsi Pro Animi - 28th Feb 1164 Pope to Becket

Baron George Lyttelton Lyttelton (1769). The history of the life of King Henry the Second, Volume 4 Printed for J. Dodsley. pp. 34–.

It appears by a letter from Alexander to Becket, dated the third of the Calends of March in the year eleven hundred and sixty-four, that some time after the breaking up of the council of Clarendon Becket had joined with the archbishop of York, in writing to that pontiff, to support a request which Henry made, by Geoffry Ridel, archdeacon of Canterbury and John of Oxford, that his Holiness would confirm the ancient customs and dignities of his realm, by the authority of the apostolick fee, to him and his successors. But the pope says, in the same letter, that he had refused his assent. And one cannot wonder that he did; for such a request- was, in reality, desiring the assistance of the papal power against itself. Indeed a bull had been granted by Pope Calixtus the Second to King Henry the First, which confirmed all the laws and customs of his realm: nor is it improbable that Henry the Second relied on that precedent in making this application; Alexander being now, as Calixtus was then, driven from Rome by a schism: but many circumstances made a difference, both in the times and the question. The papal authority had not gained such a fooling in England under King Henry the First; as under his successor; and therefore less was given up by the grant of Calixtus, than would have been sacrificed by Alexander, if he had sent one of the same purport to Henry the Second. Nor had Henry the First, when be obtained that concession, Engaged himself far in favour of Calixtus as his grandson had now done in favor of Alexander; and with the court of Rome, as other courts, no gratitude for past services has so much weight as present utility.


Thomas Becket (st., abp. of Canterbury.) (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis ... et aliorum, ed. ab I.A. Giles. pp. 1–.

University of Zurich
Corpus Corporum
Patrologia Latina Tomus 200/0285C 


(0285D)


Etsi pro animi tui prudentia et fidei sinceritate personam tuam uberiori dulcedine charitatis et flagrantiori desiderio velimus semper diligere, et honori ac exaltationi tuae, sicut charissimi fratris nostri, ardentiori animo aspirare, nos tamen et te ipsum, qui magna columna es ecclesiae tuae, cautius convenit temporum qualitatem attendere, et provida dispensationis moderatione motum principis delinire. Novit siquidem industria tua, cui divina dispensatio magnae providentiae ac gratiae donum indulsit, quam ferventem dispositionem circa regni sui gubernationem charissimus in Christo filius noster Henricus, illustris rex Anglorum, dependat et eamdem velit dispositionem, ut firmior habeatur et habeat maiorem favorem, auctoritate Romanae Ecclesiae roborari. (0286B) Unde cum olim per venerabilem fratrem Lexoviensem episcopum et dilectum filium nostrum Pictaviensem archidiaconum, a nobis et fratribus nostris instantius postulasset legationem totius Angliae Eboracensi archiepiscopo indulgeri, et tam tibi quam universis episcopis mandari rogasset, ut antiquas regni sui consuetudines et dignitates conservaretis, nobis eius petitiones praeter suum arbitrium moderantibus, statim post reditum nuntiorum suorum, vix audito quod a nobis reportaverant, dilectos filios nostros Gaufredum archidiaconum tuum et magistrum Ioannem ad nostram praesentiam destinavit, et per eos quod prius petierat, et maiora a nobis instantissime postulavit. Et ut suo desiderio faciliorem animum praeberemus, fraternitatis tuae et praedicti archiepiscopi ad nos litteras impetravit. Quod enim de antiquis consuetudinibus et dignitatibus conservandis prius mandari rogaverat, nuper, sicut tu et alii observare promiseratis, ea cum multa instantia petiit auctoritate apostolicae sedis sibi et suis posteris confirmari. (0286C)


Sed nos petitionem istam nequaquam admisimus. Verumtamen ne ad nimiam amaritudinem et vehementiorem animi turbationem eum circa nos et te ipsum provocaremus, ne etiam id consideratione tui putaretur quomodolibet impediri, nos tibi et nobis, ne forte in maiorem calorem iracundiae adversus te exardesceret, consultius providere volentes, et pensantes tempora periculosa, legationis litteras praefato archiepiscopo concedendas eidem regi concessimus. (0286D)


Quoniam vero votis principum condescendendum est, et suae obtemperandum voluntati, prudentiam tuam monemus, consulimus, et omnimodis exhortamur, quatenus sicut vir prudens et discretus, necessitatem temporis metiens, et quae inde tibi et ecclesiae tuae possent provenire pericula, fideli meditatione attendens, praenominato regi in omnibus et per omnia, salva honestate ecclesiastici ordinis, deferre satagas, et eius tibi gratiam et amorem incessanter recuperare intendas; ne secus faciendo, eum contra nos et vos ipsos conturbes, et hi, qui non eodem spiritu ambulant, tibi et nobis valeant propter hoc insultare. Nos enim, data nobis opportunitate, de honore et augmento tuo cum eodem rege diligenter et sollicite conferemus, et circa conservanda iura et dignitates ecclesiae tuae necessariam diligentiam adhibebimus, et cautelam, quam convenit adhibere.


Datum Senonis, III Kalendas Martii.


Translation [date corrected]

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas à Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians Volume I. Letter XVII: Whittaker and Company. pp. 232–.

LETTER XVII.

THE POPE TO THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, SENS, FEB. 28.

"Although your great prudence and integrity entitle you always to our regard, and make us ever anxious to maintain your honour, yet we must watch the temper of the times, and endeavour by prudent management to mitigate the wrath of kings. You know how much zeal our dearly beloved son Henry, the illustrious king of England, has shown in attending to the affairs of his kingdom, and how desirous he is that his arrangements should receive our ratification. Wherefore, when his late messengers, our venerable brother Arnulf, bishop of Lisieux, and our dear son, the archdeacon of Poitiers, petitioned us to grant the legation of all England to the Archbishop of York, and to command you, and all the bishops, to observe the ancient constitutions and dignities of his kingdom, and we unexpectedly modified his petition, he hardly listened to their report, but dispatched Geoffrey, your archdeacon, and Master John, to request the same things again, and even more: and he accompanied his petition with letters from yourself, and the Archbishop of York. In the matter of the dignities, though you and others had given your consent to them, yet we could not grant his request. But that we might not altogether exasperate him against us, and also for your own sake, and considering the evil nature of the times, we have granted the legation to the above-named archbishop. And, forasmuch as condescension must be shown to the will of princes, we advise, and in every way exhort your prudence, to consider well the necessities of the times, and the perils which may befall the Church, and so endeavour to please the king, saving the credit of the ecclesiastical order, that you may not, by doing otherwise, set him against both you and us, and cause those who are of a different spirit to mock and deride us. We will not fail, when an opportunity offers, to speak to the king in every way that may tend to maintain and to increase your honour, and the rights and privileges of your Church. Given at Sens, the 28th of February."