Tuesday, 15 December 2015

Letter of Complaint about Becket, King Henry II to Pope Alexander, December 1170

The following is a letter of complaint which was sent by Henry II to Pope Alexander III about Becket's behaviour and the turmoil which he had created since he had returned to England from exile in France contrary to the peace agreement which had been made between them, and begging the Pope to relax certain sentences of excommunication and suspension which Archbishop Becket had executed unfairly, undeservedly and without a hearing of those accused.

Materials VII p. 418
MTB 729

Jacques-Paul Migne (1855). Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Latina: excudebat Migne.

Gilbert Foliot. Epistolæ. Epistola 488 Decmber 1170 J. H. Parker. pp. 288–.
Henrici Regis Epistola. ad Alexandrum Papam 

Verierabili patri summoque pontifici Alexandro, Henricus rex Angliœ, dux Normanniœ et Aquitaniœ, et comes Andegaviœ, salut em et debitam venerationem.


Si devotionis meae, pater, erga sanctitatem vestram experimentum quaeritis, et quae in vestrae promotionis initio ad honorem vestrum fideliter a me gesta sunt, elapsa forsitan a memoria non tenetis, id saltem quod mandato vestro a me nuper effectu completum est, precor ut prae oculis habeatis, et devotionem meam erga vos ex ipsa mei operis attentione plenissime, si placet, advertere cognoscatis. Hostem enim mihi infestissimum in meum et meorum, quod absit, exterminium tota sua possibilitate promptissimum, sedentem mihi semper in insidiis ut machinetur in me malum, cui convivere, ut praesens indicat casus, mors mihi est, in regno cohabitare confusio, hunc mandato vestro vestris me totum substernens pedibus in pace suscepi, et de latere meo ducatum sibi providens, ut cum pace deduceretur ad propria sollicite procurad. Quae nimirum pax non solum sibi, sed et suis plene concessa est, et homines qui meas jamdiu carnes amaris ut sic dicam, morsibus lacerare non destiterunt, qui per orbem discurrentes sinistris adversum me mundum rumoribus impleverunt, in regno meo cum pace suscepi, sollicite providens ne laederentur ab his quos laeserant, ne ab his quos offenderant, aliquid omnino moleste sustinerent. Oportebat itaque sanctitatem vestram pater, et mihi prospexisse, ne malum mihi pro bono redderetur, ne in ejus adventu cui pacem dederam, et quem cum pace susceperam,regni mei pax ilico turbaretur, et ecclesia regni, quae nihil tale meruerat, absque audientia ad falsas ejus suggestiones tanti mole gravaminis opprimeretur, ut quidam suspensioni, quidam anathemati subjecti sint, quum si defensionis sibi detur opportunitas, se nil tale meruisse, juvante Domino, per omnia probare parati sint. Unde sanctitati vestrae devotus supplico, ut si quae sunt, aut esse possunt erga me pristinae caritatis reliquiae, sententiam regni mei personis impositam, amore justitiae meaeque petitionis intuitu relaxetis, et si quis adversus eas querelam super quacumque re moverit, causam aut per vos, aut per quos vestrae discretioni placuerit examinetis, ut in jure pro se quisque respondeat, et judicialem calculum, quem meruisse convincetur, excipiat. Hoc alii non negaretis. Quod si mihi negatum fuerit, dicam quod doleo, quia nimia me severitate repellitis, et abjectum reputatis. Caetera praesentium latori magistro David, quem mihi commendavit gratia vobis intimanda commisi, quem si mihi compatiendo exaudieritis, corpus meum vobis et animam, quam jam periclitari metuo, Deo conservare poteritis. Valeat et suis exorabilem se praebeat sanctitas vestra, pater.


Saturday, 12 December 2015

Immediate Aftermath to Becket's Murder

References

Letter in which Arnulf, Bishop of Lisieux, on behalf of all the prelates of Normandy, describes to Pope Alexander III the behaviour of King Henry II, following the murder of Thomas Becket, January 1171.

Frank Barlow (1939). Camden Third Series. Letters of Arnulf of Lisieux, Letter 72 To Pope Alexander III, Early 1171: Offices of the Royal Historical Society. pp. 122–.

Frank Barlow (2011). Edward the Confessor. Yale University Press. pp. 326–. ISBN 978-0-300-18382-5.

Augustin Thierry (1856). Oeuvres complètes: Histoire de la conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands de ses causes et de ses suites jusqu'à nos jours, en Angleterre, en Écosse, en Irlande et sur le continent ; 2. Letter Arnulf of Lisieux to Pope Alexander III ca January 1171: Furne. pp. 439–.

English Historical Documents, 1833-1874. Volume II - EHD #154 Letter from Arnulf of Lisieux to Pope Alexander III ca January 1171: Psychology Press. pp. 821–. ISBN 978-0-415-14374-5. [Translation]

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Letter CXIII: Whittaker. pp. 357–. [Translation]

Letter from Archbishop of Sens to Pope Alexander III

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Letter 114: Archbishop of Sens to Pope Alexander III: Whittaker. pp. 317–.

Roger of Hovedon Chronica Magistri Volume 2
https://archive.org/stream/chronicamagistri02roge#page/22/mode/1up

King Henry II's Plea of Not Guilty to the Murder of Becket in a Letter to the Pope

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (Canonized by Pope Alexander III, AD 1173)
Volume 7. Epistles, DXXXI–DCCCVIII, p. 440
MTB 739


Alexandro, Dei gratia summo Pontifici, Henricus rex Anglorum, et dux Normannorum et Aquitanorum, et comes Andegavorum, salutem et debitant devotionem. Ob reverentiam romanae ecclesiae et amorem vestrum, quem, Deo teste, fldeliter quaesivi et constanter usque modo servavi, Thomae cantuariensi archiepiscopo, juxta vestri formam mandati, pacem et possessionum suarum plenam restitutionem indulsi, et cum honesto commeatu in Angliam transfretare concessi. Ipse vero in ingressu suo non pacis laetitiam, sed ignem portavit et gladium, dum contra me de regno et corona proposuit quaestionem. In super meos servientes passim sine causa excommunicare aggressus est. Tantam igitur protervitatem hominis non ferentes, excommunicati et alii de Anglia irruerunt in eum, et, quod dicere sine dolore non valeo, occiderunt. Quia igitur iram quam contra illum dudum conceperam, timeo causam huic malefielo praestitisse, Deo teste, graviter sum turbatus. Et quia in hoc facto plus famae meae quam conscientiae timeo, rogo serenitatem vestram ut in hoc articulo me salubris consilii medicamine foveatis.


To Alexander, by the grace of God, the Supreme Pontiff, from Henry, king of the English, and duke of the Normans and of the Aquitains, and count of the Angevins, I greet and owe devotion. It is out of reverence to the Church of Rome, and for the love of you, which, as God can testify, I have endeavoured to be faithful and serve constantly up till now that I conceeded Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, in accordance with your command, peace and restoration of his property in full, and gave to him a respectable amount of provisions for him to be able to cross over the sea back to England. Truly he himself made his return not in the joy of peace, but carrying fire and sword, whilst against me he has brought into question matters concerning crown and kingdom. Above all everywhere without cause he brought down excommunication upon those who serve me. In consequence so great has been the unbearable impudence of the man, that the excommunicated and others from England have attacked him, and, about which I am not strong enough to be able tell of without pain, they have killed him. Since it was not long ago that I showed that I was angry with him, I fear [it might be seen that] I may be prejudged to have caused this crime. about which as God can testify, I am deeply troubled. And because I fear this is more a rumour about me than the truth, I beg your serene highness, in this matter, to comfort me with the medecine of your wholesome counsel.


Thomas Greenwood (1865). Cathedra Petri: Books XII & XIII. From the concordat of Worms (A.D. 1122) to the close of the pontificate of Innocent III. (A.D. 1216). Henry's Exculpation to the Pope: Macintosh and Hunt. pp. 263–.

Monday, 30 November 2015

Translation of the Relics of St.Thomas Becket 7th July 1220

References




Kay Brainerd Slocum (2004). Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. University of Toronto Press. pp. 239–. ISBN 978-0-8020-3650-6.

Dr Paul Dalton; Professor David Luscombe (28 June 2015). Rulership and Rebellion in the Anglo-Norman World, c.1066–c.1216: Essays in Honour of Professor Edmund King. Chapter 9: David Luscombe - John of Salisbury and Courtiers' Trifles: Ashgate Publishing Limited. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-1-4724-1375-8

Thomas F. Head (2001). Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology. Chapter 26: Liturgical Offices for the Cult of St. Thomas Becket, edited and translated by Sherry L. Reames. Psychology Press. pp. 561–. ISBN 978-0-415-93753-5.

Translation, Canonization, and the Cult of the Saints in England, 1160 - 1220
Elizabeth Hasseler (2014)
Thesis - University of North Carolina
Preaching, Martyrdom and Penitence at the Translation Ceremony of 1220 p. 43-

Reconstructing and Interpreting a Thirteenth-Century Office for the Translation of Thomas Becket
Sherry L. Reames
Speculum / Volume 80 / Issue 01 / January 2005, pp 118-170

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0038713400006679

Eales, R. (1993). The political setting of the Becket translation of 1220. Studies in Church History, 30, 127-39.

Tractatus de translatione Beati Thomae

Migne, Patrologia Latina, Tome 190, 407-24;
J. A. Giles, "Vita S.. Thomae," Patres Ecclesiae Anglicanae [Oxford, 1845], II, 269-97

Langton, Stephen (c.1150–1228), archbishop of Canterbury
Oxford Biography Index Number 101016044


Chretien Lupus (1728) Epistolae et vita D. Thomae martyris et Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis. Stephani Langton Tractatus de translatione Beati Thomae: prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 372–.

Matthew M. Reeve (2008). Thirteenth-century Wall Painting of Salisbury Cathedral: Art, Liturgy, and Reform. Boydell Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-1-84383-331-4.

Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores: Or Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland During the Middle Ages. #486, #487: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. 1865. pp. 377–.

Henry of Avranches [Henricus Abrincensis]

Henry (of Avranches) (1935). The Shorter Latin Poems of Master Henry of Avranches Relating to England. Kraus Reprint Company. p. 64-



Vita sancti Thomae [270 elegi] manoscritti

Kay Brainerd Slocum (2004). Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. Chapter 8 Office for the Translation of St Thomas Becket: University of Toronto Press. pp. 239–. ISBN 978-0-8020-3650-6.

Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesiae Sarum
Volume 3
Col 445-51



 


Monday, 23 November 2015

Some References to Becket's Murder and the Murderers


T. S. Eliot (4 March 2014). The Complete Plays of T. S. Eliot. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-544-35845-4.

...
Knights: Traitor! Traitor! Traitor!

Thomas: You, Reginald, three times traitor you:

Traitor to me my temporal vassal,
Traitor to me your spiritual lord,
Traitor to God in desecrating His church.

First Knight: No faith do I owe to a renegade,
And what I owe shall now be paid.

Thomas: Now to Almighty God, to the Blessed Mary ever Virgin,
to the blessed John the Baptist, the holy apostles Peter and Paul,
to the blessed martyr Denys, and to all the Saints, I commend
mycause and that of the Church.

The knights kill him

...



Archbishop Becket said 

"Lord forbid that we should turn the Church of God into a castle".
and
"By obedience to holy authority I order that the doors shall be opened without delay, for we ought not to make a castle out of the house of God."


William of Canterbury's account
An Annotated Translation of the Life of Saint Thomas, the Archbishop of Canterbury
by William, a Monk of Canterbury; trans. Mary Annette Bocke (1946)
Loyola University, Chicago
pp. 82-
Chapters
(35) The  crossing  of  the  four  conspirators.
(36) Description  of  the  conspirators.
(37) The  conversation  of  the  Primate  and  the  conspirators.
(38) The  invasion  of  the  Primate's  house  and  the  entrance  of  the  swordsmen.
(39) The Primate's vision at night.
(40)  The  Primate's  march  to  the  monastery
(41) The  invasion  of  the  conspirators  into  the  monastery.
(42) The  dispersion  of  the  monks
(43) Concerning  the  clerk  who  was  wounded  and  the  monk  who  was  struck.
(44) Concerning  the  death  of  the  Blessed  martyr  Thomas.

Herbert of Bosham's account
An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas. Becket--Books 5-7.
trans Irene T. Pearse. (1944)
Loyola University Chicago.
pp. 39-
Chapters or  the  Sixth  Volume:
1.  The  knights  collect  in  an  armed  cohort  and  pour  into  the  palace;  the  Champion  of  Christ  enters  the  church;  the  words  of  the  executioners.
2.  The  meeting  of  the  Champion  of  Christ  with  the  executioners;  the  point  he  drives  home  in  speaking  to  them.
3.  The  disciple,  who  wrote  these  things,  gives  his  reason  for  his  moroseness  in  describing  the  'contest  of  so  mighty  a  Champion.
4.  The  martyrdom  and  how  it  was  carried  out;  a  mention  of  a  certain  cleric  who  thrust  his  arm  between  the  on-coming  sword  and  the  head  of  the  Champion.
5.· The  Champion's  powerful  invective under  threat  of  anathema  lest  the  executioners  harm  any  of  his  people;  the  great  and  glorious  announcement  of  his  martyrdom.
6.  The  disciple  again  offers  excuses  for  his  prolixity  in  des- cribing  the  martyrdom.
7.  The  disciple's  reason  for  willingly  approaching  the  descrip- tion  of  the  final  end  of  the  martyrdom,  even  though  against  his  will.
8.  The  final  moments  of  Becket;  the  number  or  soldiers  who  took  part  in  the  execution.
9.  Becket's  wonderful  virtue  of  patience  and  the  unprecedented  barbarism  of  the  crime.
10. The  spoils  and  garments  of  the  priest  divided  among  the  soldiers;  the  hero's  hair-shirts  found  and  cast  aside;  some  strike  their  breasts  silently  repeating  to  one  another,  Indeed,  this  was  a  just  man.  
11. Within  fifteen  days  from  his  death,  the  martyrdom  is  known  throughout  the  Holy  Land  of  Jerusalem;  how  the  news  is  made  known.
12. A brief  treatment  on  the  harmony  between  the  death  of  Our  Lord  and  that  of  the  anointed  of  the  Lord, the  assurance  that  this  harmony  will  be  treated  more  fully  and  with  more  attention  at  the  end  of  this  historical  treatise.
13.  The  author  takes  up  happenings  after  the  martyrdom.
14.  The  appearance  and  preservation  of  the  dead  body  after  the  martyrdom.
15.  What  took  place  on  the  day  following  the  martyrdom  while  the  body  was  still  not  entombed;  how  the  monks  in  order  to  wash  his  body,  as  was  the  custom,  took  off  his  garments  and  found  his  whole  body  covered  with  hair-shirts;  facts  about  the  tomb,  the  manner  and  place  of  burial,  and  the  year  of  his  age  reckoned  from  the  Incarnation  of  Our  Lord.

William FitzStephen's account
An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket (Part Two)
by William Fitzstephen trans. Mary Aelred Sinclair (1944)
Loyola University Chicago
http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1368&context=luc_theses
pp. 76-

Keith Sidwell (1995). Reading Medieval Latin. Section 19: Historical Writing - Murder of Thomas Becket by William FitzStephen,: Cambridge University Press. pp. 260–. ISBN 978-1-107-39334-9.

Edward Grim's account
http://conclarendon.blogspot.co.uk/2013/11/edward-grim-eye-witness-to-martyrdom-of.html

Benedict of Peterborough's account
The Murder of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 29 December 1170

Guernes' (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) or Garnier's account

La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr; poème historique du 12e siècle (1172-1174) Publié par E. Walberg (1922)
Lines 4951 -5855
Verse 991-1171

Lines 4951 -5855
Verse 991-1171

John of Salisbury's Account


p.88-  Letter 307/304 John to Bishop John of Belmeis of Poitiers


Roger of Pontigny's account [in Latin]

Chapter 46 De passionis ejus Causa et Modo

(PL 190 0307B) XLVI.De Passionis Eius Causa et Modo

Quadrilogus

Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury . Vol. 4 / ed. by James Craigie Robertson. Longman (London) 1875-1885 p. 386-
Quadrilogus Liber Tertius
13. Qualiter carnifices ad archiepiscopum accessernnt, et eum convenerunt ---- - 386
14. Explicatio mandatorum regis, et responsum archiepiscopi ...-. - 387
15. Quomodo milites se armaverunt .. . 292
16. De ingressu archiepiseopi in ecclesiam - - 394
17. De ingressu carnificum ---- - 395
18. De martyrio et martyrii modo - 396
19. Altior consideratio martyrii et argumentum - - 399
20. De spoliis e t vestimentis quae partiti sunt milites inter se ..... . 402
21. De concursu populorum ad ecclesiam post martyrium ...... . 403
22. Qualiter sancti martyris corpus deductum Bit ad tumulandum ..... . 405
Others

Edwardus Grim; Alanus Tewkesberiensis abbas; Parisiensis Anonymus; decanus Salisburiensis Johannes (1845). Vita S. Thomae (etc.). Alan of Twekesbury and John of Salisbury: Parker. pp. 264–.

Paul Gerhard Schmidt (1991). Die Vita des heiligen Thomas Becket, Erzbischof von Canterbury. Thomas von Froidmont F. Steiner. ISBN 978-3-515-05937-4. 152-

John A. Giles (1851). Anecdota Bedae, Lanfranci, Et Aliorum : Inedited Tracts, Letters, Poems, &c. Of Venerable Bede, Lanfranc, Tatwin, And Other. Thomas de Froidmont [Phillipi Leodienses]: Printed And Published For The Caxton Society, By D. Nutt. pp. 276–.

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Chapter 39 Martyrdom of Becket: Whittaker. pp. 317–.
English Historical Society (1841). Publications. Rogeri de Wendover: Murder of Becket 1170: sumptibus Societatis. pp. 360–.

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Whittaker. pp. 318–.
Matthew Paris; Henry Richards Luard (2012). Matthaei Parisiensis Chronica Majora. Matthew Paris Chronica Majora: Cambridge University Press. pp. 280–. ISBN 978-1-108-04900-9.

Robert (of Gloucester) (1810). Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle. Volume II: Samuel Bagster. pp. 475–

General References

Edwin Abbott Abbott (1898). St. Thomas of Canterbury: his death and miracles. A. and C. Black. p. 53. 
https://archive.org/stream/stthomascanterb00abbogoog#page/n53/mode/1up

St. Thomas of Canterbury, his death and miracles
by Edwin Abbott,


Arthur James Mason (2011). What Became of the Bones of St Thomas?: A Contribution to His Fifteenth Jubilee. Section I - Narratives of the Passion: Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-1-107-60047-8.

Natalie Fryde; Dirk Reitz (2003). Bischofsmord im MittelalterMartin Aurell: Le Meurtre de Thomas Becket - Les Gestes d'un Martyre Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-3-525-35189-5.

Natalie Fryde; Dirk Reitz (2003). Bischofsmord im Mittelalter. Nicholas Vincent: The Murderers of Thomas Becket: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 211–. ISBN 978-3-525-35189-5.

Kay Brainerd Slocum (2004). Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-3650-6.
 

The Murderers of St. Thomas Becket in Popular Tradition
Tancred Borenius
Folklore
Vol. 43, No. 2 (Jun. 30, 1932), pp. 175-192
Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of Folklore Enterprises, Ltd.

The Effect of Becket's Murder on Papal Authority in England
Z. N. Brooke
The Cambridge Historical Journal
Vol. 2, No. 3 (1928), pp. 213-228
Published by: Cambridge University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3020770


The Angevin empire, or The three reigns of Henry II., Richard I., and John (A. D. 1154-1216)
by Ramsay, James H. p. 131
 https://archive.org/stream/angevinempireor03ramsgoog#page/n158/mode/1up

William Hickman Smith Aubrey (1867). The National and Domestic History of England: With Numerous Steelplates, Coloured Pictures, Wood Engravings, Facsimiles, Maps, Etc. Hagger. pp. 268–.

John Foxe; Michael Hobart Seymour (1855). The acts and monuments of the church: containing the history and sufferings of the martyrs: wherein is set forth at large the whole race and course of the church, from the primitive age to these later times, with a preliminary dissertation on the difference between the church of Rome that now is and the ancient church of Rome that then was. R. Carter. pp. 142–.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 238–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9. 

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, archbishop of Canterbury: A biography. J. Murray. pp. 264–. 

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude. J. G. and F. Rivington. pp. 552–.
Canterbury Cathedral Waterworks Plan 1165
Margaret T. Gibson; T. A. Heslop; Richard William Pfaff (1992). The Eadwine Psalter: Text, Image, and Monastic Culture in Twelfth-century Canterbury. Chapter X: The Waterworks Drawing of the Eadwine Psalter: Penn State Press. pp. 168–.ISBN 0-947623-46-9.



http://www.oberlin.edu/images/Art310/33378.JPG

William Urry (1967). Canterbury under the Angevin kings. Volume 1. Athlone P. p. 214.

Dr William Urry's detailed work on the topography of Canterbury and its Cathedral has thrown light on the immediate background to Becket's murder. The contemporary narrators of the murder generally agree that, having armed themselves, the knights returned to the the hall of the archbishop's palace to find that the door was barred against them. Robert de Broc, who had had charge of the palace during Becket's exile, called to the party to follow him, for he would find another way in. They charged southwards past the kitchens at the west end of the hall into a garden or orchard through some bushes where, on the south garden side, an entry was effected into the hall. Dr Urry has identified this garden in a document known as Rental B.

Thomas Becket's Murderers



Hugh de Morville (d. 1204) , William de Tracy, Reginald Fitzurse, and Richard le Breton

The Murderers of Thomas Becket - Compton - 2007 - Historian - Wiley Online Library

William de Tracy (1133 - c.1189)

William Sudeley de Tracy - Geni 

Sir Reginald FitzUrse (1145 – 1173)
MedLands: Reynold FitzUrse.

Barham, Kent
Becket called Fitzurse leno = Latin for Pimp. Procurer of nubile females for the king.

Sir Reginald FitzUrse
Richard le Breton




Hugh de Morville (d. 1204) [q. v.], William de Tracy [q. v.], Reginald Fitzurse [q. v.], and Richard le Breton

R. M. Franklin, ‘Morville, Hugh de (d. 1173/4)’, first published 2004, 910 words






Reginald FitzUrse (c.1130 - c.1173) - Genealogy

The Murderers of Thomas Becket
Thomas K. Compton
The Historian
Vol. 35, No. 2 (FEBRUARY, 1973), pp. 238-255
Published by: Wiley
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24443257

Natalie Fryde; Dirk Reitz (2003). Bischofsmord im Mittelalter. Nicholas Vincent: The Murderers of Thomas Becket: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 211–272. ISBN 978-3-525-35189-5.

Natalie Fryde; Dirk Reitz (2003). Bischofsmord im Mittelalter. Martin Aurell: Le Meurtre de Thomas Becket: Les Gestes d'un Martyre Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 187–210. ISBN 978-3-525-35189-5.

UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY P-S Sudeley


James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 266–.


https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Morville,_Hugh_de_(DNB00)

William FitzEmpress (1136–1164), magnate 
...in the cathedral. The thwarted marriage evidently rankled with at least one of his followers, Richard Brito (le Bret), who took part in the archbishop's murder in 1170; as he delivered .

Salisbury, John of (late 1110s–1180), scholar, ecclesiastical diplomat, and bishop of Chartres 
...the poem some of the monks of Canterbury Priory, including his good companions Odo and William Brito, the sub-prior who loved cheese and loved books more. He also introduces dubious characters ...

Becket, Thomas [St Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London] (1120?–1170), archbishop of Canterbury Click here to see image 

...Sheppard, 2.429. Four of his knights, William de Tracy, Reginald Fitzurse, Hugh de Morville, and Richard Brito (or le Bret)—the first three barons of middling rank—were stung to action and acted ...




Hugh de Morville (d. 1204) [q. v.], William de Tracy [q. v.], Reginald Fitzurse [q. v.], and Richard le Breton

R. M. Franklin, ‘Morville, Hugh de (d. 1173/4)’, first published 2004, 910 words




Manorial Society of Great Britain (1987). The Sudeleys: Lords of Toddington. Manorial Society of Great Britain.

De Tracy puzzle - Genealogy.com
Re De Tracy puzzle - Genealogy.com



Reginald FitzUrse (c.1130 - c.1173) - Genealogy

John Morris (1859). The life and martyrdom of saint Thomas Becket archb. of Canterbury. From Bur le Roi to the Martyrdom: Longman, Brown. pp. 310–32.

John Morris (1859). The life and martyrdom of saint Thomas Becket archb. of Canterbury. Longman, Brown. pp. 348–.

John Morris (1859). The life and martyrdom of saint Thomas Becket archb. of Canterbury. Notes: Longman, Brown. pp. 433–.


Court, household, and itinerary of King Henry II by R.W. Eyton, pp 150-

Murder in the Cathedral - Medieval manuscripts blog https://goo.gl/r59jqh

Tuesday, 17 November 2015

Pilgrimage to Canterbury

Gough Map Kent 1360


General References

Desiderius Erasmus; trans by John Gough Nichols (1849). Pilgrimages to Saint Mary of Walsingham and Saint Thomas of Canterbury. J. B. Nichols. pp. 9–. 

Howard Loxton (1978), Pilgrimage to Canterbury, David & Charles Publishers, ISBN 978-0-7153-7508-2 

Helen Phillips (2010), Chaucer and Religion, Boydell & Brewer, pp. 111–, ISBN 978-1-84384-229-3

Norbert Brockman (2011), Encyclopedia of Sacred Places, Canterbury Cathedral: ABC-CLIO, pp. 71–, ISBN 978-1-59884-654-6

Linda Kay Davidson; David Martin Gitlitz (2002), Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia, Canterbury: ABC-CLIO, pp. 79–, ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8

Colin Morris; Peter Roberts (2002), Pilgrimage: The English Experience from Becket to Bunyan, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-80811-8

Jennie Stopford (1999). Pilgrimage Explored. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-9529734-3-0.
  
Charles George Harper (1895). The Dover Road: Annals of an Ancient Turnpike. Chapman and Hall.


“Votives, Images, Interaction and Pilgrimage to the Tomb and Shrine of St. Thomas Becket, Canterbury Cathedral” in S. B 

The Duration of the Canterbury Pilgrimage

The Plan of the Canterbury Pilgrimage
Charles A. Owen, Jr.
PMLA
Vol. 66, No. 5 (Sep., 1951), pp. 820-826
Published by: Modern Language Association
DOI: 10.2307/459539

Sarah Blick; Laura Deborah Gelfand (2011). Push Me, Pull You: Imaginative, Emotional, Physical, and Spatial Interaction in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art. Sarah Blick: Pilgrimage to the Tomb and Shrine of St Thomas Becket: BRILL. p. 21. ISBN 90-04-20573-X.

Jerry Ellis (2007). Walking to Canterbury: A Modern Journey Through Chaucer's Medieval England. Random House Publishing Group. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-307-41766-4.  

William Mudge's Map of the County of Kent 1801

Art


Stained Glass Window in Canterbury Cathedral








London to Canterbury Route [Watling Street]

Symonson's Map of Kent 1596  http://goo.gl/mjuytx   https://goo.gl/VzfSkU

Adam BLACK (Publisher, and BLACK (Charles) Publisher.); William Henry Davenport Adams (1861). Black's Guide to the History, Antiquities and Topography of the County of Surrey. The Talbot Inn. pp. 26–.

John Dunkin (of Bromley, Kent.) (1844). The History and Antiquities of Dartford, with Topographical Notices of the Neighbourhood. pp. 25–.

Edward Walford, 'Southwark: Famous inns,' in Old and New London: Volume 6 (London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1878), 76-89,  http://www.british-history.ac.uk/old-new-london/vol6/pp76-89


Thomas Fisher (1794), The Kentish Traveller's Companion:, St Thomas a Watering: Simmons, Kirkby, and Jones; sold by all the booksellers in Kent; also by J. Johnson, London, pp. 132– 

D.J. Hall (1965). English Medieval Pilgrimage. pp. 148-65 

Canterbury Way - Harvard University
https://goo.gl/bdLkXJ

James Rattue (2001). The Living Stream: Holy Wells in Historical Context. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-0-85115-848-8.
James Rattue (2001). The Living Stream: Holy Wells in Historical Context. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-85115-848-8.

Thomas Fisher (1794), The Kentish Traveller's Companion: In a Descriptive View of the Towns, Villages, Remarkable Buildings, and Antiquities, Situated on Or Near the Road from London., St Thomas a Watering: Simmons, Kirkby, and Jones; sold by all the booksellers in Kent; also by J. Johnson, London, pp. 132–

Edward Hasted, 'Parishes: Cobham,' in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 3 (Canterbury: W Bristow, 1797), 404-442,  http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol3/pp404-442


Edward Hasted, 'Parishes: Otford,' in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 3 (Canterbury: W Bristow, 1797), 19-31, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol3/pp19-31


Edward Hasted, 'Parishes: Harbledowne,' in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 9 (Canterbury: W Bristow, 1800), 7-21, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol9/pp7-21



Some landmarks along the route

Becket was the patron saint of the  hospital in High Street, Southwark, founded in 1213 by Richard, Prior of Bermondsey, as an almonry.
Thomas Fisher (1794), The Kentish Traveller's Companion: St Thomas Hospital: Simmons, Kirkby, and Jones; sold by all the booksellers in Kent; also by J. Johnson, London, pp. 307–

St. Thomas a Watering, close to the second milestone along the Old Kent Road was a place where the pilgrims could water their horses, by a bridge over a river dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket. The river itself was the border between Kent and Surrey.


Paul Talling (2011), London's Lost Rivers, St. Thomas a Watering: Random House Books, pp. 110–, ISBN 978-1-84794-597-6
 

Edward Hasted, 'Parishes: Ospringe,' in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 6 (Canterbury: W Bristow, 1798), 499-531, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol6/pp499-531

'Houses of Benedictine monks: The cathedral priory of the Holy Trinity or Christ Church, Canterbury', in A History of the County of Kent: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1926), pp. 113-121 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/kent/vol2/pp113-121






Winchester to Canterbury Route [ Pilgrim's Way]

Pilgrims' Way - Wikipedia

Pilgrims' Way - Long Distance Walkers Association


http://www.kentarchaeology.ac/authors/DerekBright01.pdf



by Derek Bright
Kent Archaeological Society


Crump, C. G. (1936), THE PILGRIMS' WAY. History, 21: 22–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-229X.1936.tb00678.x

 Ruth Evans (1 February 2016). Roadworks: Medieval Britain, Medieval Roads. Oxford University Press. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-0-7190-8506-2.

Frank Merry Stenton; Lady Doris Mary Parsons Stenton (1970). Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon England: Being the Collected Papers of Frank Merry Stenton. Frank Stenton: Road System of Medieval England: Clarendon P. pp. 234–. ISBN 978-0-19-822314-



'Parishes: Chaldon', in A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4, ed. H E Malden (London, 1912), pp. 188-194 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/surrey/vol4/pp188-194

Canterbury Tales Chaucer

Chaucer as Pilgrim in Ellesmere MS





Kristopher James (2014). Ultimate Guide to...Canterbury Tales: General Prologue. Lulu.com. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-4475-9166-5.



Ellesmere Chaucer MS - EL 26 C 9  CHAUCER, CANTERBURY TALES : England, s. XVin





The Canterbury Tales - Project Gutenberg

Caxton's Chaucer - British Library

Geoffrey Chaucer (2008). The Riverside Chaucer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955209-2

Geoffrey Chaucer (2011). The Kelmscott Chaucer. CRW Publishing, Limited. ISBN 978-1-907360-51-0.  https://archive.org/details/worksofgeoffreyc00chau_0


Laura C. Lambdin; Robert T. Lambdin (1999). Chaucer's Pilgrims: An Historical Guide to the Pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-275-96629-4.


Donald Roy Howard (1978). The Idea of the Canterbury Tales. University of California Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-520-03492-1.

Derek Brewer (2000). The World of Chaucer. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-85991-607-3.


English and Englishness in Canterbury Tales
Tomáš Juránek