Saturday, 29 July 2017

Garnier: Prologue

Extract from 
Stanzas 1-33
Lines 1-165

1
Tuit li fysicïen ne sunt adès bon mire ;
Tuit clerc ne sevent pas bien chanter ne bien lire ;
Asquanz des troveürs faillent tost a bien dire ;
Tel choisist le nualz ki le mielz quide eslire,
5 E tel quide estre mieldre des altres, est li pire.

2
Si nuls voelt contruver u traitier u escrire,
De bien dire se peint, que nuls n’en puisse rire
U par alcune rien s’uvraine descumfire ;
Mette le sen avant, e li mals seit a dire :
10 Del bien amende l’um e nuls huem n’en empire.

3
Pur ceo l’ai comencié ke jeo voldrai descrire,
Se Jesu Crist le sueffre, ki de nus tuz est sire,
La vie saint Thomas, celui de Cantorbire,
Ki pur sa mere iglise fu ocis par martyre.
15 Or est halz sainz el ciel, nul nel pot contredire.

4
De mult divers curages e de diverse vie
Sunt en cest siecle gent, n’est nul hom kil desdie.
Plusurs unt povreté, li alquant manantie ;
Alquant aiment le sen e plusur la folie ;
20 Li alquant aiment Deu, Sathan les plusurs guie.

5
Seignurs, pur amur Deu e pur salvatiun,
Leissiez la vanité, entendez al sermun.
N’i ad celui de vus ki n’entende raisun.
Leissiez del tut ester le conseil al felun :
25 Malveis est li guaainz ki turne a dampneisun.

6
E Deu e seinte iglise e les clers honurez ;
Les povres herbergiez e peissiez e vestez,
E voz dismes del tut dreituralment dunez ;
Des pechiez criminals, de trestuz, vus guardez :
30 Veirement le vus di que Damnedeu avrez.

7
Mult par fu seint’iglise de primes defulee
E del cunseil le rei a grant tort demenee.
Deus en seit mercïez, ki or l’a reguardee !
Par cestui resera trestute relevee
35 Ki en suffri de mort, de sun gré, la colee.

8
Faire soleit li reis as clers e force e tort.
S’a forfait fussent pris, ja n’i eüst resort
K’il nes feïst jugier as lais a lur acort.
Cist Thomas les maintint ; n’orent altre comfort.
40 Pur els se combati tant k’en suffri la mort.

9
Se li clerc mesfunt rien, laissiez lei Deu vengier.
Il sunt vostre prelat ; nes avez a jugier.
E tant repoent il oriblement pechchier
Ke les ordres perdrunt ; nes poëz plus charger.
45 S’a mesfait sunt puis pris, purrez les justisier.

10
Ç’otreia saint Thomas, senz decré e senz lei,
Pur le rei refrener d’irë e de desrei.
Mes nul des sainz nel volt, ne jeo pas ne l’otrei :
Cument eveskes puise a clerc tolir ne vei
50 Le sacrement k’il ad del celestïen rei.

11
Par la preiere Helie fist Deu pluie chaïr
Sur terre, ki deveit pur suffraite perir :
Car quarante – dous meis n’en pot gute sentir.
Mes tant ne soüst puis li prophetes flecchir
55 K’il poïst cele pluie de la tere partir.

12
Mult poëz bien veer mal conseil ot li reis.
Il ne deit fere a clerc n’a iglise defeis
Ne tolir rien del lur, mes mettre i pot acreis.
De l’iglise prent il la corone e les leis.
60 Mes Deus l’ament, ki est uns en persones treis !

13
Bien est aparissant saint Thomas aveit dreit,
Ki pur les clers suppris einsi se combateit.
Pur amur Deu le fist, si cum feire deveit.
Deus li ad bien rendu, ki nullui ne deceit ;
65 Desdire nel pot nuls, car tut li munz le veit.

14
Tut li mund curt a lui, eveskë e abé
E gentil e vilain e li prince chasé ;
E nuls nes en sumunt, ainz i vont de lur gré.
Mult s’i haste d’aler ki ainc n’i a esté ;
70 Nis li petit enfant i sunt em berz porté.

15
Li muët i parolent, li surt i unt l’oïe,
E de lepre i guarissent maint, e d’ydropisie 
Li contreit i redrecent, li mort i unt la vie,
Li avogle i alument ; seint Thomas tost aïe
75 Celui ki par bon quer le requiert e deprie.

16
Mes merveille veums, e si est veirs pruvez,
De l’eve u est lavez ses dras ensanglentez :
Dedenz l’ume e defors sane les enfertez ;
Par beivre e par laver mil en i ad sanez,
80 E plusurs morz i ad par ceo resuscitez.

17
Reis e cuntes e ducs, poi les veum saintir ;
Deus les refuse mult, car nel volent servir.
Coveitise les fait suvent del dreit guenchir ;
Ne funt rien se ceo nun que lur vient a plaisir ;
85 Leis funt a lur talent, n’unt poür de morir.

18
Les reis n’eslit pas Deus ne ne choisist ne prent,
Ne les ducs ne les haltes persones ensement ;
Mes chescun ki Deu crient e ki vit lealment,
U il seit de halt lin u seit de basse gent,
90 Deus le munte e eshalce, s’a lui servir entent.

19
Saül, ki des Geius fu reis premierement,
De basse gent fu nez ; Deu l’eslist veirement :
Sur les enemis Deu chevalcha lungement,
Tant que il trespassa le Deu comandement,
95 E tut pur coveitise. Deus em prist vengement.

20
Deus relist en sun liu David, le fiz Jessé,
Un rus vadlet berchier, d’asez basse gent né.
Le prophete l’enuinst, reis fu tut sun eé,
Mult vassals e senez e de grant poesté.
100 Humlement amenda, quant il ot meserré.

21
Fols est ki en pechié volt lungement gesir ;
Mes a Deu crit merci, ne s’i lest endormir !
Bien pot l’um par pechié sa vie davancir ;
E meint est si suppris ne pot la buche ovrir
105 N’a pruveire parler, quant il vient al morir.

22
Les umles aime Deus, les povres ensement,
Car de lur travail vivent, tut dis sunt en turment ;
E aiment seint’iglise e clers e povre gent,
E dreites dismes donent e vivent nettement :
110 Itels eshalcera Deus parmanablement. 

23
E Pieres e Andreus furent frere frarur ;
A batel e a reiz esteient pescheür,
Quant Deus les apela de cel povre labur ;
Puis furent mis en croiz e mort pur sue amur :
115 Apostre sunt el ciel e glorius seignur.

24
Pur ceo vus començai a traiter cest sermon
Del martyr saint Thomas, cel glorius baron
Ki tuit li munz requiert a la seinte maison
De Seinte Ternité, u suffri passion,
120 Par ceo que il maintint verité e raison.

25
Ohi, mal eüré ! Pur quei l’avez ocis,
Cel seintisme arceveske ? N’i avez rien conquis.
Il n’aveit rien mesfet ; trop i avez mespris.
Car vus repentez tost ; volez en estre pris ?
125 A amender avez, se vivïez tuz dis.

26
Pur le pudlent de cors l’anme perdre volez,
Ainz que mot en saciez, qui ert mort e alez.
La glorie d’icest mund n’est pas fiu n’eritez ;
U vus voliez u nun, tute la guerpirez.
130 Vers Deu ne vus guarra chastel ne fermetez.

27
Li pius Deus e li veir ot saint Thomas mult chier.
Ocis fu en bel liu e en un saint mustier,
Si l’ocistrent baron e vassal chevalier.
La perdirent lur pris. N’i poent repairier ?
135 Bien se poent vers Deu, s’il volent, amaisier.

28
Nul pechiere ne pot faire pechié si ord,
Si tost cum s’en repent e del tut s’en resort,
Ke Deus ne li pardoinst e ke il nel cumfort.
Kar pur ceo suffri Deus pur pecheürs la mort,
140 Quant se prendront a li, ke il les maint a port. –

29
Si volez esculter la vie al saint martyr,
Ci la purrez par mei plenierement oïr ;
N’i voil rien trespasser, ne rien n’i voil mentir.
Quatre anz i ai pres mis al feire e al furnir ;
145 D’oster e de remettre poi la peine suffrir.

30
Primes traitai d’oïe, e suvent i menti.
A Cantorbire alai, la verité oï ; 
Des amis saint Thomas la verité cuilli,
E de ces ki l’aveient des enfance servi.
150 D’oster e de remettre le travail ensuffri.

31
Mes cel premier romanz m’unt escrivein emblé,
Anceis que je l’oüsse parfet e amendé
E l’amer e le dulz adulci e tempré ;
E la u j’oi trop mis, ne l’oi uncore osté,
155 Ne le plus ne le mains n’erés ne ajusté.

32
Par lius est mençungiers e senz pleneireté ;
E nepurquant i a le plus de verité.
E meint riche umme l’unt cunquis e achaté ;
Mes cil en deivent estre, ki l’emblerent, blasmé.
160 Mes cestui ai del tut amendé e finé.

33
Tut cil autre romanz ke unt fait del martyr
Clerc u lai, muine u dame, mult les oï mentir,
Ne le veir ne le plain nes i oï furnir.
Mes ci purrez le veir e tut le plain oïr ;
165 N’istrai de verité pur perdre u pur murir. – 

Provisional Translation

1 Not all physicians are good practitioners; not all clerics know how to sing Mass or read well; some writers prove themselves lacking in the art of narrative rhyme, and as such choose the most mediocre trick, believing themselves to be the best, when in fact they are the worst.

2 If any one wants to compose, dissert, or write, strive to do it well, so that his work does not lend itself to any mockery or tyranny by putting the emphasis on wisdom and silencing wrong. Good improves man, and does no harm to anyone.

3 I took up the pen because, if it at all pleases Jesus Christ, our Lord, I intend to retrace the life of St. Thomas of Canterbury, this martyr who was put to death for his mother the Church and who is now, without doubt, a great saint in Heaven.

4 No one would deny that in this world there are people of diverse souls and different lives: many are poor, some are rich; some love wisdom, and much madness; some love God, most are guided by Satan.

5 Lords, for the love of God and for your salvation, leave behind vanities, and be attentive to this sermon. There is none among you who does not listen to reason. Absolutely renounce the advice of the Evil One: evil is the prize that leads to damnation.

6 Honour God, holy Church and its clerics. Harbour, nourish and clothe the poor. Pay all your lawful tithes. Beware of mortal sins, of all sins, and indeed, verily, I say unto you, ye shall know God.

7 At first, the Holy Church was, at the instigation of the king, trampled under foot and treated unjustly. God has taken it under His protection. Thank Him and He will restore her. She will be restored to her integrity by the one who, of his own free will, was offered up to the blows of his assassins.

8 The king often imposed his power over the clergy subjecting them to injustice. If they were found to have committed an offence, he forced them without recourse to be judged by the laity at their pleasure. Our Thomas sought to protect them. They had no other defender; and he fought for this until he was put to death.

9 If clerics commit wrongdoings, leave vengeance to God. They are set above you; you do not have the right to judge them. On the other hand, they may sin so horribly that they will lose their holy orders, but it is not for you to punish them further.  But if after that they are commit another offence, you can bring them to [lay] justice.

10 Saint Thomas conceded this in spite of the provisions of the Decretal, to put an end to the king's anger and fury,  and arrogance. But the authority of any saint cannot justify this measure; and as for me, I do not approve of it either, for I do not see how a bishop could take from a cleric the sacrament which he holds from the King in heaven:

11 At the prayer [of Elijah] God caused the rain to fall upon the earth, which was about to perish from famine for not having received a drop of rain in forty-two months. But then all the invocations of the prophet to God would not have succeeded in causing this rain to be removed by Him from the earth.

12 You can well see that what the king had conceived was wrong. He ought not to have opposed the clergy or the church, nor to take away from them their possessions, which he ought rather to have increased, for it is from the Church that he receives his right to the crown and make laws in his court. May God who is One in three Persons help him to comprehend this.

13 It is quite evident that St. Thomas was right to fight thus for those clerics who had been seized. He did this for God, as it was his duty, and God, who deceives no one, has restored it to him. No one can deny this, since the whole world sees it [here]:

14 All the people come to him, bishops and abbots, nobles and villains, and great feudatories. Nobody urges them, but they go there of their own free will. Such is the precipitate which was not there before. but now come, and even the smallest children are brought in their cradles.

15 Here dumb people are made to speak, the deaf to hear, the lepers and those with dropsy are healed, the cripples stand up, the dead restored to life, and the blind are made to see. St. Thomas quickly helps those who invoke him and pray to him with good heart.

16 Indeed, we are witnessing an extraordinary and yet well-established phenomenon, produced by the water in which his blood-stained clothing was washed: it cures internal and external diseases: a thousand are cured, have drunk or been washed, And thanks to it, many dead are resurrected.

17 Kings, counts and dukes rarely become saints. God rejects them, for they do not wish to serve him; greed often sets them aside from the right path, They do nothing if it is not their pleasure. They pass laws at their convenience, and do not fear death.

18 It is not kings that God chooses and takes as His elect, any more than dukes or other great people. It is  the  man who fears the Lord  and lives righteously by his law, whether he be of high lineage or of low extraction. God raises him up high and  makes  much  of him,  if he  applies himself to  serving him.

19 Saul, the first king of the Jews, was born to a very humble family; and God chose him; he never ceased to subdue the enemies of God till he transgressed His commandment, and all this for greed. God took vengeance.

20 And He chose David, son of Jesse, a young red haired shepherd who was of low birth, who received the anointing from the prophet, and was a very wise and very powerful king all his life. He humbly repented after committing a bad act.

21 A fool is he that lieth long in sin; That he rather implore the divine mercy so as not to fall asleep! Man may shorten his life through sin, and he is often so surprised in the hour of his death that he can not open his mouth or speak to the priest.

22 God loves the little ones and the poor because they live by their work and are always ready to serve God. And, besides, they love the holy Church, the clergy and the needy, give just dith? And have an irreproachable conduct; God will glorify them per? sustainably.

23 So Peter and Andrew, were two brothers in their boat, they were fishing with nets, when God called them to leave their humble labours. Later they were crucified and put to death because of their love for Him. They are now in Heaven as apostles and lords full of glory.

24 For this reason I have undertaken to compose for you this sermon on St. Thomas the martyr, on the glorious man whom everybody invokes in the House of the Holy Trinity [in Canterbury], where he suffered his passion because he supported truth and justice.

25 Ah, unhappy man, why did you kill him, this most holy archbishop? You have gained nothing; he has committed no wrongdoing, and you have committed an abominable act. Repent therefore quickly! Would you be surprised by death in this state? You have something to repent, even if you still live.

26 For this stinking body, which will soon be dead and rotten before you know anything about it, will you lose your soul? The glory of this world is not a fief or an inheritance; whether you like it or not, you will leave it, and neither castle nor fortress will protect you when you stand before God.

27 The God of truth and piety had great love for St. Thomas. He was killed in a fine place within a holy minster. As for the barons and banneret knights who killed him, they lost their honour there Can they not recover it? St. Thomas may well come to reconcile them with God.

28 No sinner can commit so abominable a sin that God cannot forgive him and strengthen him if he himself repents and turns away from it. It is for the sinners [pun fishermen] that He suffered death , to lead them back to port if they convert.

29 If you wish to listen to the life of the holy martyr, you will be able to hear it from me in full, for I will omit nothing, and nor do I wish to tell untruths, as I have spent nearly four years writing and perfecting it. I like to take pains [making amendments] removing and adding to it.


30 I worked first on hearsay and made many errors. I went to Canterbury and learned the truth: I gathered it from the friends of St. Thomas and those who had served him from his childhood. I have taken the trouble [making amendments] removing and adding to [my narrative].

31 But copyists have made off with the first draft of my romance before I had [a chance] to perfect and make corrections to it, and the bitter and the sweet could be softened and tempered. In it where I said too much, and had not yet retracted, neither could I anymore scratch these out by hand nor make any additions.

32 In places it is inaccurate and incomplete, and yet in it is there often much that is true. And many rich people have sought for and bought it. But it is those who have stolen it who must be blamed. As for this later edition, I have entirely revised and perfected it.


33 All the other narrative works which have written on the martyr, whether they are by clerics or laymen, monks or noble women [or nuns], I have often found they have either lied. or are incomplete. But here you will be able to hear the plain truth in all its entirety: I shall not stray from the truth, even if I am lost or die.

Thursday, 27 July 2017

Garnier: Letter Becket to King Henry (Desiderio desideravi)

Letter Becket to King Henry and his Council held at Chinon,  late May - early June 1166

This letter is known as Desiderio desideravi
which comes from Luke 22:15 in the Vulgate edition meaning "With desire I have desired ..." or "I wanted very much to ..."

Extract from 
Stanzas 609-636
Lines 3041-3180

609
Ces letres senz saluz enveia a Chinun
L’arcevesques al rei, sil requist par raisun
Quel laissast repairier en pes a sa mesun,
E a sa mere iglise fesist e rente e dun,
3045 E a lui e as suens, de sa possessiun.

610
Se volez esculter, tost vus avrai conté
Que i out en cel brief escrit e endité :
« Sire Reis, fait li il, forment ai desiré
Qu’une feiz vus eüsse veü e avisé,
3050 E que jo buche a buche eüsse a vus parlé.

611
Mult pur mei, plus pur vus, l’ai desiré. Pur mei ?
Se vus me veïssiez, vus menberreit, ço crei,
De ço que vus servi leaument e en fei
(Si m’aït Deus al jor del poërus esfrei,
3055 Quant Deus rendra chascun ço k’avra fait pur sei) ;

612
E que vus eüsiez merci e pieté
De mei, qui sui mendis en estrange regné.
Mais, Deu merci, jo ai a mun vivre a plenté.
E li apostles Pols m’a mult reconforté,
3060 Car j’ai en ses epistles e veü e trové

613
Que tuit icil qui volent vivre en Deu piement,
Il lur covient qu’il sueffrent mesaises e turment,
E David li psalmistes, qui nus dit ensement
Ne vit ainc deguerpi nul qui vit lealment,
3065 Ne nului pain querant de bun engendrement.

614
Pur treis choses pur vus, que vus voil denuncier,
D’od vus parler eü ai mult grant desirier :
Mes sire estes, dei vus e voil vus conseillier ;
Mes reis estes, pur ço vus dei aveir mult chier ;
3070 Mes fiz estes en Deu, si vus dei chastïer.

615
Car veez cum li peres chastie sun enfant
Par mult dulce parole e par aspre e mordant,
E mainte feiz le bat de la verge trenchant,
Qu’il le repeaut a bien, quant le veit mesfaisant,
3075 U par sun chosement u par l’aspre vergant.

616
La grace Deu vus fist enuindre e coruner ;
Pur ço vus devez mult constraindre e guverner
E tute vostre vie de buens murs enformer,
Que vus puissiez as autres buen essample duner.
3080 Car a vostre faisance volent tuit esguarder.

617
A tels i a suëf e dulz estre devez,
Enpur ço que vus estes e enuinz e sacrez,
E reddes as plusurs pur le brant que portez,
Qui dedenz saint’iglise pur ço vus fu dunez
3085 Que les enemis Deu detrenchiez e matez.

618
Quant li rei sunt enuint, ço devez bien saveir
Qu’um lur met en treis lius l’enunctiun pur veir :
El chief, el piz, es braz ; car il deivent aveir
En eaus glorie mult grant e scïence e poeir.
3090 Metre devez en bien glorie, force e saveir.

619
As reis d’antiquité devrïez reguarder
Qui les comandemenz Deu ne voldrent guarder :
Nabucodonosor e Salemuns li ber
E Saül durement troverent Deu amer,
3095 Car tut ço lur toli, quant nel voldrent amer.

620
Ezechie e David e maint autre plusur,
Quant il orent mesfait vers Deu lur creatur,
Mult sunt humilïé e furent en dolur
E repentant es quers. La grace al rei auçur
3100 Lur duna puis asez glorie, sens e valur.

621
Sainte iglise funda Deus, e il l’establi,
E par sun propre sanc delivra l’e franchi.
Escopi e batuz en fu, e mort suffri.
Sun essample a nus tuz e laissa e guerpi,
3105 Que nus sivum les traces qu’il ala e siwi.

622
Car ki volt a la glorie celestïel partir,
Li covient estre el cors, pur amur Deu, martir,
La volenté del cors e les eises guerpir.
Ensi cum sainz Pols dist : “ Pur Deu devum murir,
3110 Se od li volum vivre, e pur li mort suffrir. ”

623
En dous ordres de gent est faite saint’iglise :
Del pueple e del clergié est e faite e asise,
E par dreit aünie est en ceste divise.
La cure unt li prelat de la part Deu conquise,
3115 Qui a salu des anemes seit e traitie e prise.

624
E Deus dist a saint Piere e as clers, bien le sai :
“ Tu ies Pieres, e sur ceste piere ferai
M’iglise, e ma maisun i edefierai,
E les portes d’enfer par li depecerai. ”
3120 Ceste poesté unt li clerc, nïent li lai.

625
Al pueple sunt li rei e l’autre baronie
Qui les lais unt suz els e en lur mainburnie,
E les leis seculers e poesté saisie.
Mais si deivent traitier ço qu’il unt en baillie
3125 Que saint’iglise seit tut’en pais aünie.

626
E lur poesté prennent li rei de saint’iglise ;
Mais el n’a pas la sue de nul de voz reis prise
Fors de Deu, sun espus, qui li aveit conquise.
Sur les prelaz pur ço n’avez pas comandise
3130 De faire u de laissier la clergille justise.

627
Ne devez as prelaz defendre u comander
U d’asoldre cestui u de cestui damner,
Ne les clers ordenez ne traire ne mener,
Un sul, a voz juïses ne a lei seculer,
3135 Nului de noz iglises ne des dismes causer.

628
Ne devez as prelaz faire defendement
A plaidier de lur plaiz, cum de trespassement
U de fei u de crime u de faus serement,
E d’us e de custumes e de plaiz ensement,
3140 De tels que vostre aiols tint ancïenement.

629
Deus nostre Sires dit : “ Les meies leis guardez. ”
Li prophetes redit : “ Wai vus, qui estorez
Les leis de felunie e en escrit metez
Les torz e les enjuries, e vus qui apremez
3145 Les povres Deu, e force faites as humbles fez. ”

630
Recevez le conseil, Sire, e l’asensement
De celui qui vus est fedeilz veraiement,
E de vostre arcevesque sun amonestement ;
Oez de vostre pere sun bon chastiement,
3150 N’od les purvers n’aiez mais nul cumunement.

631
Car par tute la terre est proef manifesté
Que l’apostolie avez mult granment honuré,
E l’iglise de Rume nurri e alevé.
L’apostolie vus a, e saint’iglise, amé ;
3155 Fait vus unt od raisun ço qu’avez demandé.

632
Sire, se le salu de l’aneme desirez,
Saint’iglise del suen nule rien ne tolez
Par aucune raisun, n’encontre dreit n’alez ;
Saint’iglise laissiez tutes ses franchetez,
3160 Si cum ele ad par tut es alïens regnez.

633
Sovenir vus devreit de la professiun
Qu’offristes sur l’autel a vostre enunctiun,
E del vou que fesistes a Deu en sa maisun :
A s’espuse dunastes vostre defensiun,
3165 De tute sa franchise li fesistes le dun.

634
La sainte mere iglise de Sainte Ternité,
Sire, dunt receüstes corune e realté,
Restablissiez del tut en cele dignité
E en icel estat e en l’entierreté
3170 Qu’el’out as ancesurs e par antiquité.

635
E ses possessiuns e ses autres baillies,
E viles e chastaus e fiez e mananties,
A noz clers e as lais, qu’avez tutes saisies
E a vostre plaisir dunees e parties,
3175 Que tutes les rendez, tut en tut rentieries.

636
Laissiez nus repairier en pes e franchement,
E nus vus servirum cum a rei leaument
E si cum a seignur, tant cum a nus apent.
Se vus ensi nel faites, saciez certainement
3180 Que vus en sentirez le devin vengement. »


Translation

609
This letter, which was lacking salutations, was sent by archbishop [Thomas] to king [Henry] [who was] at Chinon, requesting quite rightly if he would let him return in peace to his home, and give back to his mother Church into his possession as well as the income and goods belonging to him and his men.

610
If you are willing to listen, presently you will have related [to you] what he wrote and made known here in this letter:-
<< Sire,>> he said to him, <<I have very much desired to see you if only once to give you advice, and to have a face to face talk with you.

611
>> Largely for me, but more for you, I have desired it. As for me, if you will see me, it will be recalled to you, so I believe, about when I served you loyally and in good faith (so help me God on the frightful Day (the Last Day) [The Day of Judgement], when God renders unto each person that which each deserves;)

612
And so that you might show mercy and pity towards me, I who am a beggar in a foreign kingdom. Also thanks to God, I have for my living plenty. And the apostle Paul has much comforted me, as I have both seen and found in his epistles. 3060

613
that all who here wish to live in God piously need to suffer pain and torment, and David, the psalmist, who likewise tells us that he has never seen a faithful man forsaken, nor anyone of his offspring begging for his bread. 3065
Psalm 37:25
Biblia Sacra Vulgata (VULGATE)
25 Junior fui, etenim senui; et non vidi justum derelictum, nec semen ejus quaerens panem.
I was once young, and indeed I have grown old; and I have not seen the just abandoned, nor his seed begging for bread.

614
I have three matters for you that I wish to draw your attention to, that I have great desire to speak to you about. You are my sovereign; I must and wish to  counsel you. You are my king, for this I must hold you very dear. You are my son in God, so I must chastise you. 3070

615
In fact look at how a father chastises his child both with many sweet or by severe and biting words, and how he often beats him scathingly with a stick, means which he uses to bring him back to the right way, when he sees he has done wrong, either by his admonition or severe use of the stick. 

616
[It was by] the grace of God that you were anointed and crowned; after this you must very much constrain and control yourself and for the whole of your life be guided by good morals, so that you are able to set a good example for others, as they will all want to learn from what you do.

617
To some you must be both meek and mild, this is so because you have been both anointed and consecrated [king], and to many others [you must be] severe because the sword that you carry, which Holy Church has given to you, for you to cut to pieces and put down the enemies of God.

618
When kings are anointed, as you must well know, the chrism is indeed applied to three parts of the body: on the head, on the chest and on the arms, as they [the three parts] must possess in themselves the very great glory, knowledge and power. You must put into the service of good that glory, that strength and that knowledge. 3090
619
You must look to the kings of old who the Commandments of God who did not wish to keep: Nebuchadnezzar and Solomon the Great, and Saul, at length found God's love, as all 








625
Amongst the people are the king and the other barons who have beneath them and in their guardianship the lay people and who have been put in charge with the power and the [administration of the] secular law. But they must deal with the affairs for which they are responsible so that Holy Church may assemble completely in peace.

626
And kings receive their power from Holy Church; but she, for her part, has received none from kings, except from God, her spouse, from Whom she acquired it. For this reason over prelates. you do not have any authority of exercising or stopping ecclesiastical justice

627
You must not forbid or command prelates to absolve any one or damn another, and nor even one single ordained cleric either to be dragged or led before your justices or subjected to secular law, and on no account to try cases concerning our churches or tithes.

628
You must not forbid prelates from holding the hearings for their pleas, like those [cases] involving transgressions of faith, of crimes involving false testimony [perjury], and of disputes [pleas] which, according to the usages and customs of your grandfather, were as such anciently theirs [part of ecclesiastical justice].

629
God our Lord said: "Keep My laws." The prophet [Isiah] further added "Woe unto you who make wicked laws, filled with unjust and sinful written clauses, and to those of you who oppress the poor of God and do violence to the humble."

[Isaiah 10:1-2
1 Woe to them that make wicked laws: and when they write, write injustice:
2 To oppress the poor in judgment, and do violence to the cause of the humble of my people: that widows might be their prey, and that they might rob the fatherless.]

630
Accept the counsel, Sire, and the instruction of one who is truly faithful to you, of your archbishop, and his warning; listen to your father his good chastisement, never having communion with the wicked.

631
because in all the world it is proof manifest that the pope you have very greatly honoured, and the church of rome has fostered and raised its elevation. The pope and holy church have [in turn] shown [their] love to you. And have done within reason [all] that which you have asked for. 3155

632
sire, if you desire the salvation of your soul, do not take away from holy church anything that belongs to it for no reason, do not go against the law. Leave holy church all her freedoms, just as she has throughout all the foreign kingdoms.  3160

633
one must remind you of hte profession you made before the altar at the time of your being anointed [king], and the covenant you made with God in His house to His wife [Holy Church]. You gave your promise to defend all her freedoms in their entirety. 3165

References

Constitutions of Clarendon: Becket's Letter: Desiderio desideravi

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude. Translation of desiderio desideravi: J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 141–.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) ; ed. Emanuel Walberg (1922,
La vie de saint Thomas Becket. C.W.K. Gleerup. pp. 103–.
Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); ed. Emmanuel Walberg (1936). Les Classiques français du Moyen Age. Librarie Honoré Champion. pp.94-

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Volume 1. Autre Lettre Au Roi: Peeters. pp. 188–95. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.


Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (2013). Ian Short, tr. A Life of Thomas Becket in Verse. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-88844-306-9.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1990). Gouttebroze and Queffelec, tr. La vie de saint Thomas Becket. H. Champion. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-2-85203-111-1.

Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, canonized by pope Alexander III, A. D. 1173. Vol. V / ed. by James Craigie Robertson,...
Longman (London) (1875-1885) PP 278-82

https://archive.org/stream/thmassagaerkiby01magngoog#page/n365/mode/1up

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). "Letter 74". In Anne Duggan. The Correspondence of Thomas Becket: Archbishop of Canterbury 1162-1170. Oxford University Press. pp. 292–9. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 141–.

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket.. Volume 5 MTB 154. Cambridge University Press. pp. 278–82. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.

Comptes rendus des séances. Éditions Klincksieck. 1871. pp. 156–.

B. Tierney; Peter Linehan (11 December 1980). Authority and Power. CUP Archive. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-0-521-22275-4.

Garnier: Becket Letter to Gilbert Foliot, bishop of London (Mirandum et vehementer)

Reply by Becket to Gilbert Foliot, bishop of London, early July 1166

This letter is known as Mirandum et vehementer

Extract from 
Stanzas 665-713
Lines 3321-3565

665
A l’evesque de Lundres unes lettres itaus
Enveia saint Thomas, tutes continuaus.
En liu de saluz out paroles amials :
Que il trespast einsi par les biens temporaus
3325 Qu’il ne perde la joie qui est espiritaus :

666
« Merveille est de sage humme e des lettres apris,
E qui saint abit ad de religiun pris,
Qu’il la cremur de Deu a si ariere mis,
Contre verité vait e medle bien en pis,
3330 Volt saint’iglise abatre e cels qu’i sunt asis.

667
D’enfer puet saint’iglise les portes depecier.
N’est mie sages hum qui la volt trebuchier :
Semble humme qui a corde volt le munt jus sachier.
Pur ire u pur haïne ne deit nuls leidengier
3335 Evesque ne sun frere al Damnedeu mestier.

668
Mais a voz lettres puis e veeir e sentir
Que ne puis pas les grapes des espines cuillir
Ne des runces les fiches. Mais quil voldreit oïr,
A l’escorpiun semblent, al chief e al partir,
3340 Qui volt deriere puindre e devant conjoïr.

669
Obedïence offristes ainz e subjectiun :
En refui de ço faites puis appellatiun ;
Tost turnastes vostre est en la negatiun.
“ N’est od mei, fait l’apostles Pols, est est e nun nun ? ”
3345 En la buche al produme n’en deit aveir s’un nun.

670
Deus dona ses disciples poesté, ço savons,
Del calchier sur serpenz e sur escorpiuns.
Ezechïel uncore maint entre les feluns.
Quel remedie vus fait vostre apellatiuns ?
3350 Deu ensiuvez, ço dites ; mais ne l’i entenduns.

671
Remedie de tuz mals Jesu Crist nus dona :
Obedïence. En sei bon essample en mustra,
Car obedïenz fu a Deu, qui tut cria,
Desqu’en la sainte cruiz par la mort devia.
3355 Tu apeles remedie la u grant nuisance a.

672
Quides tu que la pape te voille maintenir
A ço que tu ne deies a tun maistre obeïr ?
Dous feiz l’en as requis ; ne t’en volt pas oïr,
Car il deit la maistrie e le feis sustenir
3360 De saint’obedïence faire par tut tenir.

673
Primes l’en requesis par ta vive parole,
Puis après par tes lettres, par suggestiun mole :
Plus est ferms que la piere qui siet sur vive mole.
Vicaries est saint Piere, bien seiz n’est pas ventvole ;
[104] 3365 Duns, presenz ne preiere nel commuet ne afole.

674
Mais la tierce fïee le deiz bien asaier,
Qu’il ait al tierz asalt le triumphe plenier.
E que tu me peüsses plus forment agregier,
As esluignié l’apel pres d’un an tut entier ;
3370 Ne nule pitié n’as que me veiz eisillier.

675
Ne n’as nule pitié de sainte mere iglise,
Que nostre Sire Deus a par sun sanc conquise,
Qui sueffre tel travail e si mortel juïse.
De ço qu’obedïensce as a tun dit pramise
3375 Nostre seignur le rei, n’as nule guarde prise.

676
E tant cum il voldra vers nus ensi errer
E envers saint’iglise, que devreit honurer,
Ne purra en bataille seürement aler,
Ne en pes ne en guerre ne vivre ne ester,
3380 Que le peril de s’aneme ne puisse mult duter.

677
Or voil de ço respundre qu’en tes lettres desis,
Que quant jo departi del regne e del païs,
Li regnes fu trublez e en grant esfrei mis :
Poür poent aveir tuit cil qui l’unt purquis
3385 E qui l’unt conseillié, qu’il n’en seient suppris.

678
Del bon comencement sui mult loez de tei :
Ki despise sun los nul sage humme ne vei,
Mais de ço ne deit creire nul autre plus de sei.
Des torz me blasmes mult que jo ai fait al rei :
3390 Nul n’en nummes ; ne sai delquel respundre dei.

679
E de ço t’esmerveilles que j’osai manecier
Nostre seignur le rei a escumennïer :
Qui se taist quant sun fil veit granment foleier,
N’entent en lui nul bien, quant nel volt chastïer ;
3395 Mielz est qu’il le chastit quel veie detrenchier.

680
Bien sai que li reis volt chastiement suffrir :
En escumengement ne volt il pas chaïr.
[105] Ço que Deus ad planté ne larra pas perir.
La nef veiz tutes parz en tempeste gesir :
3400 J’en tieng le guvernail, tu me roves dormir !

681
Les buntez que li reis m’a fait, me mez devant :
En halt m’a mis de poi e granment mis avant.
A ço te respundrai cum a guise d’enfant :
Jo n’iere pas si povre cum tu vas ci disant,
3405 Quant li reis nostre sire me fist sun haut servant.

682
De Cantorbire aveie l’arcediachené,
E de Beverlei oi idunc la provosté,
Provendes e iglises pluisurs par le regné,
Possessiuns e rentes e autre richeté ;
3410 N’iere del tut si tenves cum tu as ci mustré.

683
E se tu vols parler de mun povre lignage,
Des citehains de Lundres fui nez, en cel estage.
En lur visnez senz plainte mestrent tut lur eage,
Ainc ne quistrent l’autrui, ne ne firent damage.
3415 Ne furent, cum tu diz, d’einsi tresbas parage.

684
Qui voldreit clerement a la raisun guarder,
Mielz vient de basse gent e bon estre e munter
Que de halte gent estre e en enfer aler.
Les mains honestes menbres deit l’um plus honurer,
3420 Sulunc l’apostle, e plus d’onur envoluper.

685
Ço ne devreit pas dire huem cristïen, letrez,
Religius, evesques. Mais vus me reprovez,
Puet cel estre, que j’ere de sens poi aürnez :
Qui sun pere hunist pechié fait, ço savez.
3425 Fait Deus : “ Tun pere honure ; plus lung ert tis eez. ”

686
Ne les bienfaiz le rei ne t’estuet pas mustrer.
A testemonie en puis Deu prendre e apeler
Qu’en tut le munt ne poi rien plus de lui amer,
Mais qu’il laissast les dreiz de saint’iglise ester.
[106] 3430 Altrement ne puet il seürement regner.

687
Tuz les biens qu’il m’ad fait ne purreit nuls nuncier.
Nis s’um les poeit tuz en cent multiplïer,
Ne dei jo la dreiture de Deu pur ço laissier ;
Ne tei ne voil j’en ço, ne autrui, esparnier,
3435 Ne a l’angele del ciel, s’en ço voleit pechier.

688
E se nuls m’araisneit de ço, tost li dirreie :
“ Fui d’ici, Satanas ; ta buche Deu reneie. ”
Ja Damnedeu ne place que si hors del sens seie
Que del cors Jesu Crist marcheanz estre deie,
3440 Ne mis sire li reis seit pris en cele veie.

689
Quant fui fait arcevesques e Deu m’i aleva,
Tu diz que li regnez encontre ço cria
E la mere le rei le desamonesta,
Saint’iglise, tant cum li lut, en suspira :
3445 Nel desdist pas li regnes, ainceis m’i apela.

690
Se la mere le rei le voleit desturber,
Nel fist pas en apert, n’avant nel fist mustrer 
N’en oï saint’iglise fors sul cels suspirer
Qui a l’onur tendirent, quant n’i porent entrer.
3450 Unches puis ne finerent de mei al rei mesler.

691
Puet cel estre qu’ensi se voleient vengier
De mei, quant lur curage ne porent avancier.
Unkes puis ne finerent de mei contralïer ;
De la descorde sunt autor e conseillier.
3455 Vuai celui par ki vient escanles d’encunbrier !

692
Maint engin pur mei nuire sovent avant mis unt ;
Mais la force Deu est plus fort que il ne sunt,
Qui en cest degré m’a alevé ça amunt.
E Deus, qui est justise, me comande e sumunt
3460 Qu’ariere dos nel mete pur rien qui seit el munt.

693
Ne me tairai de ço que tu vols enpeirier
[107] Ma cause, e vols le rei einsi justefïer.
Diz qu’il est tuz dis prez, e fu, de l’adrescier :
Quel adrescement est de tuz dis enpeirier,
3465 E qu’a nul’amendance ne volt hum repairier ?

694
Innocens, orphenins, vedves veiz essillier,
Ceaus qui culpes n’i unt hors del païs chacier,
E maint tolir le lur e forment laidengier,
Enprisuner mes hummes e tenir e lïer,
3470 E esseillier les clers, e ne lur vols aidier.

695
Tu veiz ta mere iglise e rober e tolir
Biens e possessiuns, ne la vols maintenir ;
E mei, qui sui tis peres, qui tu ne deiz faillir,
Espees pur ma mort desur mun chief tenir,
3475 Qu’a grant paine escapai : ainc n’en volsis fremir.

696
Mais encore fais pis e mult greignur mesprise,
Qu’od cels qui mal me quierent as vers mei guerre prise,
Encontre Damnedeu e encontre s’iglise.
Mais a celé le fais e en coverte guise ;
3480 Tu n’en as nule hunte, ariere dos l’as mise.

697
Est dunc adrescement de neent restorer,
Tut adesseement e pis e pis ovrer ?
Mais le contraire vols, puet cel estre, noter,
Que servir as feluns a gré, c’est amender :
3485 Ainceis est ses saetes de sanc juste enivrer.

698
Mais bien me puez respondre la verité provee :
Guarder vols ta cotele, pur ço n’as puint d’espee.
N’iert owan, se tu puez, pur espee donee ;
Ne faiz cum fist saint Piere, qui dona la colee,
3490 Al serf al prince aveit l’une oreille coupee.

699
Tu diz que li reis est tuz prez de l’adrescier
Al jugement del regne : ne m’i voil apuier.
De la volenté Deu ne purreit nuls jugier.
Des terrïenes choses puet l’um a dreit plaidier,
[108] 3495 Mais les devines choses covient a Deu laissier.

700
Bien devreies le rei adès amonester
Qu’entendist a la pes saint’iglise guarder,
Tut ço qu’a lui n’apent laissast del tut ester,
E les proveires Deu pensast mult d’onurer ;
3500 Ne deit pas qui il sunt, mais ki sunt, esguarder.

701
Des dous que j’ai, ço diz, des cristïens sevré
A tort – mais tut a dreit ! – as meü le pensé :
Car qui veit le bordel sun veisin alumé,
Il ad poür del suen. La meie volenté,
3505 De ço meüz sereies u tu n’as bien esté.

702
Ço sace bien li reis, e tu li deiz mustrer,
Que cil qui puet les angles e hummes guverner
Dous poestez suz sei fist en terre ordener :
Des proveires est l’une ; a Deu deit minestrer ;
3510 Cil sunt espirital, um les deit honurer.

703
Des princes en est l’altre ; del tut sunt terrïen.
Seignur les unt sur els, e nostre e alïen.
Cremir deivent lur princes paien e cristïen.
Qui tout a nul des ordres rien del dreit ancïen
3515 L’ordenement desfait al rei celestïen.

704
Honurer cels ne deit li reis pas desdeignier
Qui Deus es sainz escriz volt pur Deus denuncier.
Deus les apele Deu, ço trovum el psaltier.
Le prophete fist Deus sur Pharaun drecier ;
3520 Nis mesparler des clers rove Deus a laissier.

705
Un Gïeu qui aveit per Moÿsen juré
Aveit um as proveires pur cel pechié mené.
“ Amenez le as Deus ”, fait li reis de bunté.
De Deu sunt li proveire Deu dit e apelé,
3525 Car sur les genz sunt mis el liu Deu e sacré.

706
Ne puet li reis de cels faire nul jugement
[109] Ki lui deivent e poent jugier veraiement.
Les levres del proveire sunt guarde d’escïent.
“ Li prestre est angeles Deu, ço dit Pols, qui ne ment ;
3530 Nus jugerum les angeles, les genz meesmement. ”

707
A prince terrïen ne volt ainc Deus baillier
Les clefs del ciel, qui poent lïer e deslïer,
Mais as ordenez fait sa poesté traitier.
Bien devreies al rei mustrer e esclarier
3535 L’ovraigne Costentin, qu’um deit mult eshalcier.
708
Al rei Constentin furent li proveire encusé,
E del crime l’en furent li escrit aporté,
E devant li en furent li proveire amené.
Veant els ad l’escrit el feu ardant geté.
3540 “ N’estes par mei, fait il, ne jugié ne dampné.

709
Vus estes Deu. Jugiez voz plaiz si cum vus place ;
N’est pas dreiz que nuls huem de Deu jugement face. ”
Cil fu bons emperere ; Deus li duna sa grace,
Saint’iglise l’eshauce ; il veit Deu face a face.
3545 Li reis devreit ensivre e ses mors e sa trace.

710
De la manace Deu puet altrement fremir :
“ Qui qu’unques s’orguelist que il ne volt oïr
Sun proveire e sun juge, lui estuvra murir. ”
A ço fait Deus le rei sur le regne establir
3550 Qu’il deit la peis que Deus nus tramet, maintenir.

711
Altrement ne puet pas li reis aveir salu,
Pur tute sa grant force ne pur sa grant vertu,
Nis se tuit li regne erent par li sul maintenu.
E ço que j’ai a tei par cest brief respundu,
3555 Ai jo dit a tuz cels qui sunt od tei tenu.

712
Or vus pri e requier, freres, par igal guise
[110] Qu’entre nus n’ait envie, descorde ne faintise,
Mais en nus seit en Deu uns quers, un’aneme asise.
Oiuns Deu, qui nus rove a murir pur justise.
3560 Pur nus ad la bataille vers noz enemis prise.

713
Frere, n’ublions pas cel verai jugeür.
Quant vendrunt devant li e juste e pecheür,
A la fin de cest siecle e al deerain jur,
Il jugera le munt ; ja n’i avra poür
3565 Ne de rei ne de prince ne de halt emperur. »

714
Tels letres enveierent al saint humme ultre mer
Li prelat qui deveient saint’iglise tenser.
Les custumes del regne voleient alever
En sainte mere iglise. Mais li saintisme ber
3570 S’en conbati adès, e pur li delivrer.

667 Holy Church can smash down the Gates of Hell. It is not a wise man who wishes to bring her down, like a man with a rope wanting to pull down a mountain. Neither through anger nor through hate should anyone slander a brother bishop in the ministry [service] of Almighty God. 3335

668 But I can both see and sense in your letter that I cannot pick grapes from thornbushes, nor figs from briars. For who would want to listen, for it would  be like a scorpion divided into head and tail, which would want to sting with its rear end, whilst with its front end want to please. 3340

669
How you offered yourself up at first to obedience and subjection: then seeking refuge from this you have made an appeal. How you have turned your consent rapidly into its opposite. "Is it within me," said St. Paul the Apostle, "that I should say both “Yeah, yeah" and “Nay, nay” [at the same time] ?  In the mouth of the honest man, there must only be one of these words [at any one time]. 3345

670
God gave his disciples the power, this we know, to trample on serpents and scorpions. But Ezekiel dwelt amongst the scorpions [felons/rebels]. What remedy do you seek from your appeals [to the Pope]? You say you follow God, so you have said [in your letter], but we have not heard it therein. 3350   

2 Corinthians 1:17-18
17 When I was thus-wise minded, did I use lightness? Or think I carnally of those things which I think? that with me yay should be yay and nay, nay. 18 God is faithfull: For our preaching unto you was not yay and nay.

Luke 10:19
19 Behold I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions and over all manner of power of the enemy and nothing shall hurt you.

671 
Jesus Christ gives us the remedy for all ills: obedience. By his good example he showed us this because he was obedient to God who created everything, right up to the time when he died on the Holy Cross. You appeal for a remedy when it is a great hindrance. 3355

672
Do you think that the Pope will want to protect you [in this] when by this you do not deign to obey your master? Twice you have asked for this. He does not want to listen to you, for he is master of and must uphold [the system of] Holy obedience in everything he does. 3360

673
First you asked for it in person, then afterwards in your letter, in which you used sham flattery; he is firmer than the living massive rock upon which he sits, for he is the vicar of St. Peter's, which you well know is not blown around by the wind [like a weather vane]. Neither gifts, presents nor prayers will either move or seduce him. 3365

674
Nevertheless you have to try him for a third time. Yet in this third assault his victory is total. for in order to overwhelm me even more cruelly, you have to defer your appeal for almost a whole year.  Have you no pity seeing me in exile? 3370

675
Do you not have any pity for Holy Mother Church, that our Lord God [Jesus] paid for with his own blood, who endured such torture and so mortally in final judgement? Indeed these are the very [same] words you used When you made your promise of obedience to our Lord the King of which you have taken no care. 3375

676
And so long as he wishes to offend thus against us and towards Holy Church which he ought to honour, he cannot go into battle safely, neither in peacetime nor when at war without the great fear of putting [the salvation of] his soul in grave danger. 3380

677
Now I will respond to the matter that you spoke about in your letter, that when I departed [fled] the king and country, the kingdom became very troubled and it caused a great consternation.  All those who caused it can be afraid and [as well as] those who gave him [the king] [bad] counsel, they should not be suprised at this [if it were to happen to them]. 3385

678
At first well I am much praised by you: who would treat with disdain his reputation, there is no wise man who would not. But in this he must not trust any other more than himself. You accuse me strongly for having done many wrongs to the king, but none did you name: I do not know how to respond to you about this. 3390

679
And you are astonished by this that I would dare to threaten our Lord the King with excommunication: who would remain silent [and not act] when he sees his son being led astray into great sin? It is best that he should chastise him, rather than see him cut to pieces. 3395

680
Well I know that the king would suffer chastisement; he has no desire to fall into excommunication. It is so that which God has planted He will not let perish. You see the ship blown down on all sides amidst the storm; I hold the rudder, and yet you expect that I sleep! 3400

681
You have put before me the favours which the king has done for me; [you say] that he raised me up high from an inferior position and greatly advanced me. To this I will answer you in the manner of a child:  I was not so poor as you say when our lord the king made me his foremost servant. 3405 

682
Of Canterbury I was the archdeacon, and of Beverley I then became the provost. [I also had income from] prebends and many churches in the kingdom, properties, rents, and other wealth; I was not at all as impoverished as you have claimed. 3410

683
And if you wish to speak of my poor lineage, I was born to some citizens of London in this state. And they lived for the whole of their lives without complaint from their neighbours, neither demanding anything from others, nor doing them harm. My lineage was not so very low, as you say,  3415  

684
Whoever would like clearly to keep to the reason, it is better to come from base people and be good and rise, than to be high person and on his way to Hell. The hands of upright and honest members must more honour do to him. We ought,  according to  the  apostle, to do greater honour to our less comely members and cloak them more honourably.  
For as  the Apostle says: 'Those members of the body , which we think to be less honorable, upon those we should bestow more abundant honour.' 3420

[1 Corinthians 12:23
And upon those members of that body which we think least honest, put we most honesty on. And our ungodly parts have most beauty on.]

685
A Christian man, a man of letters, one dedicated to a religious life, bishops should not say such things. But you have reprimanded me: can this be that perhaps, you think I lack a little common sense? Whoever shames his father commits a sin, for God says "Honour your father and you will live longer." 3425
[Exodus 20:12 - Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long ...]

686
There is no need for you to mention the generosity of the king [towards me]; as God is my witness I appeal that I could not be more devoted to anyone in the world than him, provided he leaves the rights of Holy Church be. Otherwise he will not be able to reign in peace. 3430


687
No one can list all the good fortune which he has bestowed upon me. Even if one were to multiply all of that by one hundred I must not neglect the rights of God. I hold no wish of sparing anyone from this, neither you, nor anyone else, not even the angel of heaven, should he want to commit such a sin. 3435

688
And if someone tried to reason with me about this, I would say to him: "Get thee hence from here Satan; thou deniest God by thy mouth."
[Matthew 4:10 Then Jesus saith to him: Begone, Satan]
It would not please the Lord God if I were to lose my sense and stray into becoming a merchant for the [mystical] body of Jesus Christ and my lord the king were caught performing such a trade. 3440

689
When I was made archbishop and God raised me up to the dignity, you say that the kingdom cried against this, and the mother of the king advised against it. Holy Church, as far as it was allowed, sighed because of it: but on the contrary no one in the kingdom challenged my being called to this dignity. 3445

690
If the mother of the king wanted to block this,  she didn't do it openly, nor made it apparent before anyone else; neither did I hear anything about it from Holy Church except from those who sighed craving this honour when they could not obtain it. Never at any time have they ceased to quarrel about me to the king. 3450

691
Can this be that they also wanted revenge on me when they could not advance their intention? Since then they have not ceased to oppose me. They are the authors and schemers [counsellors] of the discord [between me and the king]. Woe unto him through whom such burdensome [evil] scandals come! 3455

[Luke 17:1 Then said He to his disciples, it cannot be avoided, but that occasions of evil come. Nevertheless woe be unto him through whom they come.]

692
In order to harm me they have often used much cunning. But the power of God who has raised me on high is stronger than them. And God, who is righteous, commands and exhorts me not to turn my back on Him for anything in the world. 3460

693
I will not remain silent to the fact that you wish to damage my cause, and wish to justify the king['s actions]. You say that he says that he is and has always been ready to make amends [for his wrongs].  But what then is the righting of his wrongs when he makes them worse constantly and shows no wish to make amends? 3465 

694
You see innocents, orphans, widows sent into exile, those who were blameless driven out of the country, many with their possessions taken from them and vigourously to suffer deprivation, [you see] the imprisonment of my men both restrained and chained up; [you see] clerics sent into exile, and you show no wish to help them. 3470

695
You see you mother church both robbed and pillaged of goods and possessions, yet you show no wish to defend her, and me, who art thy father, whom you must not be unfaithful to, [you have seen] swords [ready] to put me to death held above my head which I only escaped with great difficulty, and you never even wanted to show the least concern. 3475 

696
Yet you continue to do even more wrong, amd commit a very grievous sin, when you ally with those who seek to harm me, and to make war on me, against Almighty God and against His Church. And you are even doing it to them in secret guise; you seem to have no shame in doing this: you have [already] turned your back on her. 3480

697
Does then making amends consist of doing nothing, always moving constantly from the bad to the worse? Can this be? Note this: perhaps you wish for the contrary, that is you desire to serve the traitors [Devil?]: perhaps [you think] doing this is making "amends". Perhaps this is making one's arrows drunk with the blood of just men! 3485

698
But well you can reply to me with the incontestable truth. You may well wish to keep your [bishop's] cope, for this you do not need to have a sword at all. It is not this year, you will be able to exchange it for a sword; You did not do what St. Peter did who struck at the servant of the prince [with his sword] cutting one of his ears off. 3490

699
You say that the king is fully ready to make amends in accordance with the [laws and] judgement of the kingdom. I do not wish to agree to this. The will of God can never be decided in this way. One can plead wordly matters by means of law, but one should leave divine matters to God [Himself]. 3495

700
You ought always to advise the king that he must strive to protect the peace of Holy Church, [and] to leave be all that which is not devolved upon him. And must not think of further honouring the ordained priests of God for whom they are, but taking care to see whose [priests] they are. 3500

701
You have thought to raise the matter of the two whom you say I have wrongfully separated from the Christian [community]. But I did it quite rightfully, because he who sees the cottage of his neighbour on fire, he is afraid for his own. If I had my way you would be moved [far]away from where you have not done well. 3505

702
This the king well knows, or you must explain it to him, that He who can govern angels and men has established two powers under Him on Earth: The priesthood is one, and to God it must minister: they are spiritual; one must honour them. 3510

703
Princes are the other; they are completely terrestial. The lords are under them, both ours and the foreigners: they must fear their princes both pagans and Christians. Anyone at all who abandons any part of this ancient law undoes what the King in Heaven ordained. 3515

704
The king must honour and not scorn those whom God, in Holy Scripture, has wanted to proclaim pure [in heart]: God calls them Gods; this is found in the Psalms. God raised the prophet above Pharaoh; God even demanded that clerics should not be allowed to be spoken ill of. 3520

Exodus 22:28
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus+22%3A28&version=DRA

705
A Jew who had sworn "By Moses" was brought before the priests [to be judged] for this sin. "Let him be brought before the Gods", said the good king. God said of them Gods they are, calling them Gods, because God has placed them above the people and consecrated them. 3525

706
The king cannot pronounce judgment on those who ought and can judge him truly [honestly and fairly]. The lips of the priests are the guardians of the knowledge. "The priest is the angel of God" so said [St.] Paul, "who does not lie. We judge angels and people in the same way." 3530

707
God never wants to hand over the keys of heaven to a earthly prince, which have the power to bind and loosen, but he has given his power to be admisntered  by the priests. Well you ought to explain and clarify to the king what Constantine did, which should be greatly lauded. 3535

708
Some accusations against some priests were brought before Constantine whose crimes were set down in writing, and before him the priests were summoned to appear. Seen by everyone the written accusations were thrown into a burning fire. "These are not for me" said he, "to judge or pass sentence."  3540

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_and_loosing
Matthew 18:18

709
You are a God. Judge your pleas as you please; it is not right that a [mere] man should pass judgement on God. He was a good emeperor. God gave him his grace. Holy Church exalted him. He looks at God directly in the face. The king should imitate his way of life and follow in his footsteps. 3545

710
Otherwise one may tremble at the threat of God: "Whosoever is so proud that he does not want to listen to his priest and his judge, he must necessarily die." God establishes the king over the kingdom to maintain the peace that comes to us from God. 3550

Deuteronomy 17:12
But he that will be proud, and refuse to obey the commandment of the priest, who ministereth at that time to the Lord thy God, and the decree of the judge, that man shall die, ... 

711
Otherwise the king cannot obtain salvation, not even for all his great power nor for his great virtue, not even if he alone rules over all the kingdoms [in the world]. And the answer I give to you in this letter is also addressed to all those who side with you. 3555

712
Now, brethren, I beg you and ask you to let there be between us neither jealousy, nor discord, nor deceit, but that we unite in God with only one heart and one soul. Let us listen to God who enjoins us to die for justice, for He has engaged us in the battle against our enemies. 3560

713
Brothers, let us not forget the one who is the true judge. When all will stand before Him, both the righteous and the sinners, at the end of this world and on the last day, He will judge the world. Then there will no longer be fear of kings nor princes, not even of a high emperor. 3565

714
"The prelates who were meant to protect Holy Church sent such letters to the holy man over the sea. They wanted to impose upon Holy Mother Church the customs of the kingdom. But our most holy hero fought incessantly against this, and for her liberty. 3570


 
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A Tree and its Fruit
Matthew 7

https://goo.gl/hyYJK9