Friday, 25 April 2014

From Council of Clarendon to Council of Northamton 1164

Baron George Lyttelton Lyttelton (1769). The history of the life of King Henry the Second,  Printed for J. Dodsley. pp. 34–.

Chretien Lupus (1728). Epistolae et vita D. Thomae martyris et Archi-episcopi Cantuariensis:   ex manuscripto Vaticano. prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 67–.

It appears by a letter [MTB 50] from Alexander to Becket, dated the third of the Calends of March in the year eleven hundred and sixty-four, that some time after the breaking up of the council of Clarendon Becket had joined with the archbishop of York, in writing to that pontiff, to support a request which Henry made, by Geoffry Ridel, archdeacon of Canterbury, and John of Oxford, that his Holiness would confirm the ancient customs and dignities of his realm, by the authority of the apostolick see, to him and his successors. But the pope says, in the same letter, that he had refused his assent. And one cannot wonder that he did; for such a request was, in reality, desiring the assistance of the papal power against itself. Indeed a bull had been granted by Pope Calixtus the Second to King Henry the First, which confirmed all the laws and customs of his realm: nor is it improbable that Henry the Second relied on that precedent in making this application; Alexander being now, as Calixtus was then, driven from Rome by a schism: but many circumstances made a difference, both in the times and the question. The papal authority had not gained such a footing in England under King Henry the First; as under his successor; and therefore less was given up by the grant of Calixtus, than would have been sacrificed by Alexander, if he had sent one of the same purport to Henry the Second. Nor had Henry the First, when be obtained that concession, engaged himself so far in favour of Calixtus as his grandson had now done in favor of Alexander; and with the court of Rome, as other courts, no gratitude for past services has so much weight as present utility. Every act, by which the last of these princes had supported and strengthened the party of Alexander, especially in having fixed the king of France to his side, had made him more independent, and, consequently, less tractable to any demands prejudicial to the interests and views of his fee. it would, indeed, have been more beneficial to the king of England's affairs in many points, and particularly in all his disputes with the church, if he had joined at first with the emperor in acknowledging Victor, and had prevailed on Louis to concur with him in that determination : because a pope of the imperial faction, set up and supported by the emperor, must necessarily have acted with more regard to civil government, than the associate of Gratian in compiling the decretum, whose exaltation was owing to his known zeal for the papacy, and for the whole system of ecclesiastical power.

References

R. W. Eyton (1878) Court, household, and itinerary of King Henry II pp. 67-

John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Volume 1. Chapter XIX: Whittaker and Company. pp. 226–.

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 103–8.

John Morris (1859). The life and martyrdom of saint Thomas Becket archb. of Canterbury. Longman, Brown. pp. 114–.

W. H. Hutton (1899) S. Thomas of Canterbury. D. Nutt London pp. 62-5

James J. Spigelman (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. James Spigelman. pp. 137–40. ISBN 978-0-646-43477-3.

Gourde, Leo T. (1943), "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket by William Fitzstephen". pp. 63-4

M. Ann Kathleen Fisher (1947). An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket by Herbert Bosham (part Two). Loyola University of Chicago. pp 81-

Henry Hart Milman (1860). Life of Thomas à Becket. Sheldon & company. pp. 73–9.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 105–8. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Guy, John (2012). Thomas Becket: Warrior, Priest, Rebel, VictimPenguin Books Limited. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-0-14-193328-3.

Michael J. Franklin (1995). Medieval Ecclesiastical Studies: In Honour of Dorothy M. Owen. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-0-85115-384-1.

Michael Staunton (7 December 2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. 21. Thomas laments his compliance (January 1164) Herbert of Bosham: Manchester University Press. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.

Michael Staunton (7 December 2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. 22 Thomas attempts to flee (August- September 1164) Edward Grim.: Manchester University Press. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.

The History of the Reign of Henri 2 and of Richard and John, His Sons; with the Events of the Period from 1154 to 1216. 1793. pp. 105–.

 Étienne Mignot (1756). Histoire du démêlé de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre avec Thomas Becket: précédé d'un discours sur la jurisdiction des Princes et des Magistrats séculiers sur les personnes écclésiastiques. Arkstée et Merkus. pp. 71–.

Thomas Carte (1747). A general history of England. Printed for the author. pp. 588–.

Robert Henry; Malcolm Laing (1788). The History of Great Britain, from the First Invasion of it by the Romans Under Julius Cæsar: Written on a New Plan. A. Strahan; and T. Cadell. pp. 346–.


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Correspondence

CTB 

MTB 
James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Volume 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.

Sens: 21 January CTB 23  MTB 43

early 1164 CTB 24  MTB 55

Sens: 23 February CTB 25  MTB 49

Sens: [27 Feb 1164] 5 March CTB 26 MTB 50

Sens: c. 1 April CTB 27 MTB 51

Sens: 1 April CTB 28 MTB 52

c. May CTB 29-30 MTB 53 and 54

c. 22 June CTB 31 MTB 60

mid -1164 CTB 32 MTB 59


July CTB 33-34 MTB 61 and 25

? July CTB 35 MTB 44

summer CTB 36 MTB 62


Regesta pontificum romanorum, Jaffé 1888

Patrologiae cursus completus ...: Series latina. Tomus CC apud Garnier fratres. Col 232-.


 CTB 23 Jaffé 10996  Patrologia Latina 234
 CTB 26 Jaffé 11004  Patrologia Latina 238
 CTB 25 Jaffé 11005  Patrologia Latina 239
 CTB 27 Jaffé 11006  Patrologia Latina 240
 CTB 28 Jaffé 11014  Patrologia Latina 244

Thomas Sanctus Episcopus Canterburiensis Becket (1845). Epistolae(etc.). Parker

Thomas Becket (st., abp. of Canterbury.) (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis ... et aliorum, ed. ab I.A. Giles. Epistola CXCVIII
Thomas Becket (st., abp. of Canterbury.) (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis ... et aliorum, ed. ab I.A. Giles. Epistola CXCIX.

================================

MTB 49

Christianus Lupus  (1682). Epistolae et vita Divi Thomae Martyris et Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis.. Epistola XCI: typis Eug. Henrici Fricx.

Thomas Sanctus Episcopus Canterburiensis Becket (1845). Epistolae(etc.). Epistola CCVI: Parker.

James Craigie Robertson  Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury  Volume V. Epistola XLIX: Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.

Ad hoc pontificalis officii

MTB 50 Non ob gratiam

Chretien Lupus (1728). Epistolae et vita D. Thomae martyris et Archi-episcopi Cantuariensis ex manuscripto Vaticano. Liber i Epistola iv: prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 67–.

Thomas Becket (st., abp. of Canterbury.) (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis ... et aliorum, ed. ab I.A. Giles. Epistola 198. pp. 1–.

 James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Volume V Epistola L: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.

MTB 51

Chretien Lupus (1728). Epistolae et vita D. Thomae martyris et Archi-episcopi Cantuariensis ex manuscripto Vaticano. Liber i Epistola v: prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 67–.

Thomas Becket (st., abp. of Canterbury.) (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis ... et aliorum, ed. ab I.A. Giles. Epistola CXCIX. pp. 3-.

James Craigie Robertson. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (Canonized by Pope Alexander III, AD 1173). Volume V. Epistola LI: Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.

Universität Zürich Corpus Corporum: Non ob Gratiam http://goo.gl/pvnPLA
Translation:
John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas à Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Letter XVIII: Whittaker and Company. pp. 234–.

Feb.27 [28] , 1164.
Pope Alexander III to Archbishop Thomas, 
after granting the legation [post of papal legate] 
to Archbishop Roger of York.

Let not your mind be dejected or brought to
despair by the grant of the legation, since before
we were brought to it or gave any consent, the
messengers, on behalf of the illustrious king, pro-
mised and offered, if we would receive it, to make
oath that never without our knowledge and will
should the letter be given to the archbishop of
York. For we asked that you should undoubtingly
believe, and without any scruple of doubtfulness
hold that never did it come into our mind or ever
(God willing) shall come that we should wish your
church to be subject in ecclesiastical matters to
any person, or to obey any but only the Roman
pontiff. And therefore we admonish and command
you that if the king should restore the letter [to the
archbishop] which we not do believe that he will
do without our knowledge you straightway signify
the same to us by a faithful messenger and by letter
so that we may declare your person and the church
and city committed to your care, by apostolic au-
thority, entirely exempted from every jurisdiction of
the legation.

MTB 52 Ad aures nostras

Chretien Lupus (1728). Epistolae et vita D. Thomae martyris et Archi-episcopi Cantuariensis: ex manuscripto Vaticano. prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti.  Epistola XXVI: prostant apud Jo. Baptistam Albritium q. Hieron. et Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 77–.

Thomas Becket (st., abp. of Canterbury.) (1845). Epistolæ sancti Thomæ Cantuariensis ... et aliorum, ed. ab I.A. Giles. Epistola CCI. pp. 5–.

James Craigie Robertson (15 November 2012). Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Volume V. Epistola LII: Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.

Universität Zürich Corpus Corporum: Ad aures nostras http://goo.gl/zKJglI

1164, April 1st, Alexander III. to Becket, upon hearing
of the Council of Clarendon, absolving him.


Alexander, Pope, servant of the servants of God,
to his venerable brother Thomas, archbishop of
Canterbury, health and apostolic benediction.

You know, my brother, that it has come to our
ears that you, because of a certain error, have pro-
posed to cease from the celebration of masses and to
abstain from the consecration of the Body and Blood
of the Lord. How grave a matter this be, especially
in so great a person, and how great a scandal may
arise therefrom, you should with anxious thought
consider. Your prudence ought diligently to observe
that there is great difference between things com-
mitted on deliberation and full willingly and those
done out of ignorance or necessity. For it is known
that we should proceed in one way in matters done
willingly, in another in those done (as it is said)
ignorantly or by compulsion of necessity. And the
former should be treated in one way, the latter in
another, and so measured by discreet and prudent
men as we are taught in Holy Scripture. For your
intention gives the meaning to your deed : for as it is
written in another place, Inasmuch as voluntary
evil is sin, unless it be voluntary it is not sin. And
Almighty God watches not the deed but considers
rather the intention and judges the will. If, there-
fore, you remember that you have done anything
where your own conscience ought to reproach you,
whatsoever it be, we advise you by penance to
confess it to a priest that is accounted discreet and
prudent. The which done, may the merciful Lord
Who looketh much more to the heart than to the acts,
forgive with compassion ; and we, trusting in the
merits of His blessed apostles, Peter and Paul, have
absolved you from what is done and remit it to you by
apostolic authority, advising and commanding you
that hereafter you do not on this account abstain
from the celebration of masses.
Given at Sens, April 1.

===========
Jaffé 10996 Sens 21st January 1164
Querimonias adversus
Migne (1855). Patrologiae cursus completus: sive Bibliotheca universalis. Epistola CCXXXIV J. P. Migne. pp. 282-.


From Pope Alexander


To Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, he signifies that he has written to  Roger archbishop of York, to refrain from the concession to him in a previous letter the right to have his cross borne before him in all England, and, was not to presume this in the parish of Canterbury until the case concerning this which has been brought for judgement is concluded. He affirms that in the same letter that the phrase "the permission granted for this throughout the whole of England" had on no account yet been affirmed, and that any letter granting this concession by any of the preceding Roman pontiffs was not effective, and even if the last letters contained those words, they are void.

Jaffé 11004 Sens Febr 27 1164
Etsi pro animi
Migne (1855). Patrologiae cursus completus: sive Bibliotheca universalis. Epistola CCXXXIX: J. P. Migne. p. 285.

From Pope Alexander
To Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, exhorting him to "take more care of the present situation, and to attend on king Henry of England in all matters and always, without prejudice to integrity of the Church's order, striving to defer to him and intent on obtaining incessantly his grace and love.

Announced today to the king let it be known that

"The keeping of the ancient customs and dignities as promised by the bishops of England, to obtain confirmation this authority from the Holy See". Decision: not satisfied. But [appointment as] Legate to all England granted to Roger archbishop of York, which had been sought by letter. [Decision:] conceded.

Jaffé 11005 Sens Febr 27th 1164
Ad hoc pontificalis
Migne (1855). Patrologiae cursus completus: sive Bibliotheca universalis. Epistola CCXXIX: J. P. Migne. P. 287

From Pope Alexander
To Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, and to all the bishops of England, he commands that if the king of England should require from them at any time any matter which may emerge as being contrary to ecclesiastical liberty they must do nothing to call this into question. If, however, they have made a promise to the already above mentioned king, and knowingly bound themselves in such a way, in no wise are they obliged to keep this. 


Jaffé 11006 Sens 27th Feb 1164
Non ob gratiam
Migne (1855). Patrologiae cursus completus: sive Bibliotheca universalis. Epistola CCXL: J. P. Migne. p. 287.
Baron George Lyttelton (1769). The history of the life of King Henry the Second Printed for J. Dodsley. pp. 376–7.
James Craigie Robertson . Materials for the History of Thomas Becket,  Cambridge University Press. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-108-04929-0.
Michel-Jean-Joseph Brial (1813). Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France: Rerum gallicarum et francicarum scriptores. Imprimerie impériale puis royale. pp. 210–.
Saint Thomas (à Becket); John Allen Giles (1846). Epistolae Sancti Thomae Cantuariensis. Apud Whittaker et socios. pp. 241–.

From Pope Alexander to Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury

He exhorts Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, saying that the papal legateship granted to Roger, archbishop  of York, has not been done to make trouble.  He said, the king's messengers in his absence have promised on oath that, they will not deliver the letters grating the legateship to the archbishop of York, without your knowledge and wish. He added that neither you nor your church will be subject  to any ecclesiastical person, save only to obey the Pope himself.

Jaffé 11014 Sens 1st April 1164
Ad aures nostras
From Pope Alexander
To Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, pardons his sin, and implores him neither to cease to celebrate mass, nor abstain from the consecration of the blood and body of our Lord.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude. J. G. and F. Rivington. pp. 80–.

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 96–.

Storia di San Tommaso di Cantorbery e dei suoi tempi del prof. abate Pietro Balan. Tip. dell'Imm. Concezione. 1867. pp. 346–55.

The History of the Reign of Henri 2 and of Richard and John, His Sons; with the Events of the Period from 1154 to 1216. 1793. pp. 94–.
 

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