Tuesday, 30 December 2014

The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

I. S. Robinson (19 July 1990). The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-31922-5.

Robert Somerville (1977). Pope Alexander III and the Council of Tours (1163): A Study of Ecclesiastical Politics and Institutions in the Twelfth Century. Abbots and Cardinals at the Council of Tours 1163: University of California Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-520-03184-5.

Johannes Matthias Brixius (1912). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181.

Cardinal William of Pavia
MATENGO, O.Cist., Guglielmo
Cardinal Deacon of st Mary via lata
Cardinal Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli,

Cardinal  Henry of Pisa
MORICOTTI, O.Cist., Errico (?-1179)
http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1150.htm#Moricotti

Cardinal Deacon Hyacinth
BOBONE, Giacinto
Hyacinth Bobo, cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin
Became Popes Celestine III
I. S. Robinson (19 July 1990). The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-31922-5.
Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger (1842). A History of the Church: Translated from the German of the Rev. J.J. Ig. Döllinger,. C. Dolman and T. Jomes. pp. 24–. Text ". ..." ignored (help)

Otto, Cardinal Deacon of Tulliano
OTTONE (?-1174/1175)

Cardinal Bishop Walter of Albano


Octavian - Antipope Victor IV
Cardinal Manfred
Manfredo, O.S.B. (?-1178)
Cardinal Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro
http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1163.htm#Manfredo

Hubald, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia
ALLUCINGOLI, O.Cist., Ubaldo (ca. 1097/1110-1185)
http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1141.htm#Allucingoli


Cardinal Deacons

Cardinals Deacons held the lowest rank amongst the Cardinals. The other two ranks were Cardinal Bishops and Cardinal Priests. Many cardinals were deacons, and were not fully ordained priests. If they were elected Pope in conclave, they had rapidly to be ordained as priest, bishop and then pope (bishop of Rome). Many Cardinal Deacons were selected by the Pope from amongst the officials of the Roman Curia, rewarded for their service to the Church or skill at diplomacy or administration. In the early days of the Church there were seven deacons each who who administered one of the seven districts of the Roman diocese,There were a further seven deacons who assisted in the papal household.  By the 10th and 11th centuries the number of deaconries in Rome had increased to 18, and in Urban II's time a Cardinal Deacon was assigned to each of them.


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