Wednesday, 16 March 2016

Garnier: Christmastide 1170


Stanzas 990-1032
Lines 4950-5160

990
Einsi s’en repaira saint Thomas a sun sié.
Tant cum vesqui, se tint puis en s’arceveschié.
La u il vit les povres, en a eü pitié ;
El servise Deu s’a jur e nuit traveillié.
4950 Bien saveit sun martirie, si l’aveit denuncié.

991
Mais le jur de Noël, quant il out sermuné,
De saint’iglise aveit Robert del Broc sevré,
Qui l’autre jur devant li eut fait tel vilté
Qu’il li eut sun sumier de la coue escurté,
4955 E altres qui aveient envers lui meserré.

992
De l’evesque de Lundres ra al pueple mustré,
De cel de Salesbire, – Jocelin l’unt nomé, –
[153] De celui d’Evrewic, qui par s’auctorité
Out sustrait a l’iglise de Sainte Terneté
4960 Des reis l’enunctiun e si grant dignité ;

993
E de Randulf del Broc, qui l’out forment grevé
E out maint de ses hummes sovent enprisuné.
Dunc ad maudit tuz cels par qui out mal esté
Del rei, e qui a tort li aveient meslé
4965 E qui le meslereient mais a sun avoé.

994
« De Jesu Crist, fait il, seient il tuit maldit ! »
Dunc a geté aval, quant il out cel mot dit,
Desur le pavement la candeille en defit
Que lur memorie seit ostee de l’escrit,
4970 E il mis hors del regne u li bon sunt eslit. –

995
Rogier del Punt l’Evesque, quant vit e entendié
Qu’en escumengement fu mis e en devié,
Ne volt venir a dreit, ne n’a merci prïé.
Car mult out felun quer e gros e surquidié,
4975 E li diables out dedenz lui pris sun sié.

996
Mais li autre prelat e si dui conpaignun,
Gileberz Foliot e Jocelins par nun,
Voleient repairier a satisfactiun,
Faire a lur arcevesque e dreiture e raisun.
4980 Bien conurent entre els tute lur mesprisun.

997
Mais cil del Punt l’Evesque les ad fait meserrer,
Contre Deu e raisun e drecier e aler ;
Compaignuns volt aveir al malice mesler.
« Cele veie, fait il, vus pri laissiez ester ;
4985 Vostre religiuns ne vus face turner.

998
Il vus porreit mult tost turner e deceveir.
Mais j’ai dis milie livres, en mun tresor, d’aveir :
Ainz les despenderai tuz, ço saciez pur veir,
Que jo ne face tut l’orguil Thomas chaeir.
[154] 4990 Ne porra pas grant force encontre mei aveir.

999
Or passerum la mer ; irum al rei de la,
Qui nus a maintenu encore tresqu’en cha,
E nus e nostre cause contre lui maintendra ;
E s’en vus ne remaint, tresbien l’achevera.
4995 Se vus le guerpissiez, savez que il fera ?

1000
E s’a sun enemi vus turnez e pernez,
Ja n’avreiz mais s’amur, tant cum vivre porrez,
Ne sa grace a nul jur ja ne recoverrez ;
E dirra que raisun fuiez e trespassez,
5000 E voz possessiuns, si dreit vus fait, perdrez.

1001
Que porrez vus puis faire ? U irez mendïer ?
E s’al rei vus volez tenir e alïer,
De quei vus porra plus Thomas contralïer ?
Mis vus ad en sentence qui ne vus puet lïer,
5005 Car a nule verté ne se puet apuier. »

1002
Tant les ad enchantez qu’od sei les fist aler.
A la nef sunt venu e entrerent en mer.
Rogiers del Punt l’Evesque n’i pout sun quer celer.
« Thomas, Thomas, fait il, mar m’i faites passer !
5010 A vostre chief ferai mal chevez aturner. »

1003
Mais si tost cum il furent de la mer essawié,
Le brief a l’apostolie unt al rei enveié
Par quei lur mestier eurent e perdu e changié.
E quant li reis le vit, mult out le quer irié ;
5015 Ses mains feri ensemble e se plainst senz faintié.

1004
En sa chambre en entra d’ire desculurez ;
Dit qu’il ad malveis hommes nurri e alevez,
En malveise gent est sis pains mis e guastez,
A ses dolurs ne part nul de tuz ses privez !
5020 Mult aveit tuz les suens par ses diz esfreez.

1005
Funt il : « Que s’a li reis si fort a dementer ?
Se il veïst ses fiz u sa femme enterrer
[155] E trestute sa terre ardeir e enbraser,
Ne deüst il tel duel ne faire ne mener.
5025 S’il eüst rien oï, bien le deüst mustrer.

1006
E tut ço que l’um ot, ne deit um maintenir.
Tuz ses comandemenz sumes prez de furnir
E chastals e citez brisier e asaillir
E perilz de nos cors e des anemes suffrir.
5030 A tort se plaint de nus, quant nel volt descovrir.

1007
– Uns huem, fait lur li reis, qui a mun pain mangié,
Qui a ma curt vint povres, e mult l’ai eshalcié,
Pur mei ferir as denz ad sun talun drecié !
Trestut mun lignage ad e mun regne avillié :
5035 Li duels m’en vait al quer, nuls ne m’en a vengié ! »

1008
Lués en comença tute la curt a furmïer ;
Eaus meïsmes enpristrent forment a avillier
E le saint arcevesque forment a manecier.
Par fei s’en comencierent pluisur a alïer
5040 Que la hunte le rei hasterunt del vengier.

1009
Mais li trei conpaignun, quant il furent passé,
Tut dreit a Bur alerent. La unt le rei trové :
Al pié li sunt chaü, merci li unt crïé,
E devant lui se sunt mult griefment desmenté,
5045 E en plainte e en lermes unt grant duel demené.

1010
Dunc ad li reis Henris mult changié sun semblant,
E rova les evesques drecier en lur estant,
E comanda a dire de quei funt duel si grant.
L’arcevesques Rogiers aveit parlé avant,
5050 Qui mult seut mal mesler e deriere e devant.

1011
« Sire Reis, fait li il, bien devum doluser ;
E jel puis si cum si e dire e demustrer,
Mais a ces altres dous ne puet nuls huem parler,
[156] Qu’en sentence nel facent e gesir e ester
5055 U Thomas les ad mis, puis qu’il vint d’ultre mer.

1012
Tuz cels ad mis Thomas en escumengement
Qui a vostre fiz furent a sun corunement,
E cels qui consentant en furent ensement.
– Dunc n’en sui jo pas fors, fait li reis erramment,
5060 Par les oilz dunt Deus vit, car jel voil e consent.

1013
– Sire, fait l’arcevesques, quant vus estuet partir
A la grevance od nus, mielz le poum suffrir.
Il fait de saint’iglise voz francs hummes eissir,
En escumengement voz evesques gesir.
5065 N’a ço ne se volt il encore pas tenir.

1014
Puis qu’il fu el païs venuz e repairiez,
Par vostre terre vait de granz genz espeisiez :
Chevaliers e serjanz, d’armes apareilliez,
Maine, e crient qu’il ne seit autre feiz essilliez ;
5070 Quiert aïdes par tut, qu’il seit plus esforciez.

1015
Nus ne nus plaignum pas, ne n’en sumes grevé,
Que nostre aveir avum despendu et guasté,
E en vostre servise travaillié e pené,
Pur ço que vus avum servi en lealté,
5075 Mes que nus ne seum de vostre amur sevré,

1016
Mais de ço qu’il nus ad a tel tort demenez,
Comme malvaises genz huniz e defamez.
Se vus en faites el, n’en serez mais blasmez ;
Mais or atendez tant qu’il seit aseürez :
5080 Bien e tut choiement vengier vus en purrez. »

1017
Le brief a l’apostolie fu avant aportez,
Qui out ces treis prelaz de lur mestier sevrez ;
En oiance fu liz e de tuz escutez.
Dunc fu li mautalenz tutes parz enbrasez,
5085 Saint Thomas maneciez e forment vergundez.

[157] 1018
Li jurs de Noël fu cel an par vendresdi.
Mais le jur de la veille, – ço fu par un juesdi, –
S’asembla cil concilies e li Deu enemi,
E aveient juree la mort al Deu ami.
5090 Lui quiderent abatre, mais il s’en sunt huni.

1019
Dunc jurerent sur sainz, e entre – afïé sunt,
Qu’en tuz les lius del siecle u trover le purrunt,
Par desuz le mentun la lengue lui trarunt,
E les oilz de sun chief ansdous li creverunt ;
5095 Ja mustier ne altel ne tens n’i guarderunt.

1020
La chambre de Bur a estrange destinee ;
Mainte dure novele a sovent escultee :
Rainilz i fu Harald par serement donee,
L’ost d’Engleterre i fu del Bastart afïee,
5100 E la mort saint Thomas afïee e juree.

1021
Tut li mielz de la curt se sunt entrafïé
De faire e de furnir cele grant cruelté.
Mais en mun livre n’erent ne escrit ne nomé :
Quant par amendement lur ad Deus pardoné,
5105 N’erent par mun escrit el siecle vergundé.

1022
Tant furent espiré del felun susduiant
Tut li mielz de la curt e tut li plus vaillant
E tut li plus sené, e Engleis e Normant.
E sunt alé as porz, cha li un, la alquant :
5110 Diepe e Winchelesé, Barbeflué e Witsant.

1023
Tuit volsissent passer, s’il peüssent, la mer,
Pur guaitier tuz les porz d’Engleterre e guarder,
Que nuls huem ne peüst en Engleterre aler
Qui seüst l’arcevesque cel afaire mustrer,
5115 Par quei il s’en peüst fuïr ne desturner.

1024
Puet cel estre, s’il fuissent a cel’hure passé,
Il eüssent fait el qu’il n’unt puis demustré.
Mais a cele feiz n’orent bon vent ne bon oré,
Ne Deus nes haï tant qu’en ço fuissent trové,
5120 Ne diables n’out pas en els tel poesté.

1025
Mais cil quatre felun e li Deu enemi
(Pur lur malvaise vie furent de Deu haï) :
Hue de Morevile, Willaumes de Traci
E Reinalz li fiz Urs e li quarz altresi,
5125 – Ço fu Richarz li Brez, – sunt de la curt parti.

1026
Rogiers del Punt l’Evesque les aveit conveiez,
E a faire le mal les ad mult enticiez :
Par Thomas est li regnes trublez e empeiriez ;
S’il esteit mort, ço dit, tut sereit apaisiez.
5130 De quanqu’il en ferunt prent sur sei les pechiez.

1027
La cause e tuz les moz lur a dit e formez
Qu’il unt puis l’arcevesque en sa chambre mustrez.
A chascun des quatre ad sessante marz donez.
La fu li justes sancs venduz e achatez :
5135 As Gïeus est Judas li coveitus alez.

1028
Cil firent saint Thomas ocire e detrenchier
Qui deüssent al bien le rei mielz conseillier
E de la male veie turner e raveier.
E cels en deit hum plus blasmer e chalengier,
5140 E li reis les devreit de sei mult esluignier.

1029
Nes deit pas apresmier, se il bien se repent.
Car lur conseil li fu a mult grant damnement,
E mult en est blasmez de ço qu’a els s’entent.
E il l’unt conseillié tuz dis a sun talent :
5145 Conseil a volenté ne vait pas lealment.

1030
Li dui des quatre sunt a Dovre mer passé,
Dui a Wingelesé. Ne furent desturbé
Pur nef ne pur passage, pur vent ne pur oré ;
Tut lur est avenu selunc lur volenté.
5150 A Saltewode sunt venu e asemblé.

1031
E dan Randulf del Broc fu encontre els alez.
Al chastel les aveit conduiz e ostelez.
Les cirges fist estaindre c’um i out alumez :
Lur conseilz tute nuit unt tenuz e menez ;
5155 Cil qui i peut entrer fu del conseil privez.

1032
Al jur furent d’entur li chevalier mandé,
Qu’après venissent d’armes bien prest e aturné,
De la besuigne faire le rei tut apresté.
E dan Randulf del Broc l’aveit ainz comandé,
5160 E encontre cels furent par ban tut asemblé.

Translation

990 And so St. Thomas returned to his see, where he remained in his archbishopric for the rest of his life. Whenever he saw the poor, he took pity, working to serve God night and day. Well he knew he faced his martyrdom, for sure he had foreseen it. 4950

991 But on the day of Christmas, whilst he delivered his sermon he severed [excommunicated] from holy church Robert de Broc who had two days earlier committed such ignominy; he had cut off the tail of his pack-horse [sumpter] horse, and others who had strayed from the path against him. 4955

992 He explained to the people the sentences upon [the excommunications and suspensions of] the bishop of London, and that [of the bishop] of Salisbury, Joscelin by name, and that [of the archbishop of] York, who had usurped the authority and great[er] privilege of the [archbishop of the] church of Holy Trinity [namely the right of the See of Canterbury] to anoint kings. 4960

993 And of Randolf de Broc who had afflicted him tremendously and had many times his men [servants/tenants/those who owe allegiance to him] often imprisoned. Then he cursed [maledictum] all those who had brought him into wrong with the king, and who caused the quarrel between them, and those who meddled with his avowed lord. 4965

994 <<By Jesus Christ,>> he said <<they are truly cursed!>> Then, as he spoke this word, he threw the candle down onto the paving in defiance, so that their names would be struck from the book of remembrance, and they would be sent away from the kingdom [of Heaven], for which the good are selected. 4970

995 When Roger de Pont-l'Évêque saw and heard that he had been excommunicated and placed under an interdict, he wished neither to come before the law [ecclesiastical court] nor to plead for mercy, for he had a wicked heart, both gross and arrogant, and the devil [Satan] had taken up his throne within it. 4975

996 But the other prelates, his two companions, Gilbert Foliot and Joscelin by name, wanted to go and make satisfaction before their archbishop both by rightful argument and reasoning.  Well were both aware of all their misdeeds. 4980

997 But he of  Pont-l'Évêque led them astray. against God and reason, off the straight path and way. He wanted to have them as companions in his evil enterprise. <<I beg you>> he said, <<not to take that path, lest piety turns you around. 4985

998 >> He [Thomas] could very quickly deceive you and make you change your mind  But I have ten thousands pounds worth in my treasury, which to spend all to appease this, rather than not to bring down Thomas and all his pride. He cannot bring a greater force against my wealth. 4990

999 >> Let us now cross over the sea. Let us go to the king who is there, who will support us still until even more in this. Both us and our cause against him he will uphold  If you give up on this do you know what he will do? 4995

1000 >> And if you turn and take up with [the king's] enemy. you will never again have his [the king's] affection so long as you shall live. You will never recover his grace; he will say that you have fled from reason and transgressed.  And if he brought you to trial, you will lose your possessions. 5000

1001 >> What then can you do? Where would you go to beg? And if to the king you would hold and swear allegiance, what more can Thomas do to go against you? He has already sentenced you, what more can he do to bind you, because there is no truth in it to support it.>> 5005

1002 They were bewitched so they were prepared to go with him. They came to the ship and set off across the sea. Roger Pont-l'Évêque could not  hide what was in his heart: << Thomas, Thomas,>> he said, << you have made me cross the sea, I will overturn you with a bad pillow as your headrest.>> 5010

1003 Soon after they had crossed the sea, they forwarded to the king the letter [they had received] from the Papal See which had taken away their ministries. As long as the king has lived, he has had a heart full of wrath. He clapped his hands together and bewailed without pretence. 5015

1004 He went into his [audience] chamber, pale with anger, shouting loudly that he had given nourishment to a wicked man and raised up an evil person who had taken of his bread and hospitality. Was there no one at all who shared his pain? Those of his men [who were present] were much frightened by what he said. 5020

1005 They said: <<So what is it the king is lamenting about? Even if he were to see his sons and wife buried or the whole of his country set ablaze and burnt down, he ought not to have been tormented so. If he has heard anything well he ought to reveal what it is. 5025

1006 >> Moreover, one should not always heed what one has heard. We are ready to fulfill all his commands, to smash down and assault both castles and cities, for our bodies and souls to suffer the dangers of death. It is wrong to complain to us if he does not want to explain what the matter is.>> 5030

1007 <<A man,>> said the king, <<who has eaten my bread,  a man who came to my court poor,  and whom I had raised to the highest, has kicked me in the teeth with his talons out. He has reviled my lineage and my kingdom! The sorrows have pierced me to the heart, and no one has avenged me of him.>> 5035

1008 Immediately the whole court began to run around like ants, and to take it upon themselves to reproach one another very much, and the holy archbishop to threaten extremely. In faith several began to swear oaths that they would hastily avenge the humiliation brought upon the king. 5040

1009 When the three companions [the excommunicated and suspended bishops] had completed their passage [across the sea], they went straight to Bur-le-Roi, where they found the king. They threw themselves down at his feet and cried out unto him for mercy, lamenting exceedingly, and made a show with pleas and tears, and great sadness. 5045

1010 Then the king Henry very greatly changed his countenance; and directed them to stand up, and commanded them to say what was causing them such great grief. Archbishop Roger spoke first; well he knew how to stir up evil, [and lead] from both the rear as well as the front. 5050

1011  <<Sire king,>> he said to him, <<well should we grieve, and in any case I can tell you and explain; but these two others cannot speak to anyone without that person falling under and having the same sentence which Thomas has placed upon them after he came back from over the sea. 5055

1012 >> He has excommunicated all those who attended the coronation of your son, and likewise, all those who gave consent to it.>>
<<Then I too am not an exception,>> said the king immediately. << by the eyes of God, because I desired and gave consent to it.>> 5060

1013 <<Sire,>> said the archbishop <<how much must it be for you to share the burden with us, for we can suffer it better. He sends your free men away from holy church and makes your bishops lie under excommunication. and neither does he want still to stop at that. 5065

1014  >> After he had arrived back in the country he travelled around through your land surrounded by a great number of men: knights and sergeants bearing arms, at hand, out of fear of being exiled for a second time, and in search of recruits everywhere so that he could increase his strength. 5070

1015 >> We are not complaining for ourselves, neither are we aggrieved that we have spent and laid waste to our wealth, and in your service have suffered hardship and pain for this, which we have done out of loyalty to you, as long as we have not been severed from your affection. 5075

1016 >> But in this, in which he has acted towards us with such a wrong, as if we were evil men, he has shamed and defamed us. If you were to do anything about this, you would not be blamed for it; but if you were to wait until he feels secure, well and in a complete hush will you be able to have vengeance.>> 5080

1017 The letter from the Pope was fetched, the one which told the three prelates that they had been severed from their profession [métier]. It was read out aloud in audience for all to hear. Then from all sides evil intent was embraced, with threats made against and extreme shame brought down upon St. Thomas. 5085

1018 Christmas day that year fell on a Friday, and the day of its vigil [Christmas Eve], was therefore a Thursday, on which this council and God's enemies met. And they swore to kill God's friend. They were intending to batter him down,  but it was they who were to be disgraced. 5090

1019 Then they swore upon [the relics of] a saint] and made mutual pledges that they would seek for him in all the places of the world,  that they would pull his tongue out through [a hole] under his chin and would gouge out both of the eyes in his head. Not even a monastery. nor altar nor church would prevent from doing this.5095

1020 The [king's audience] chamber at Bur[le-Roi] has had an unusual destiny; in it great amount of significant news is often heard: it was here that Rainild [Adeliza?] was given in promise [of marriage] to Harald, that the host of England swore pledged fealty to the Bastard, and the death of St. Thomas was affirmed and sworn. 5100

1021 The great majority of the court bound themselves to make and perform this act of great cruelty. But I will not write down in my book any names, when by their repentance to God they have been pardoned: they will not be shamed in this world by my writing. 5105

1022 They were so very inspired by the wicked man that they were led astray: the majority of the court, and all the most worthy, and all the most sensible, both English and Norman. And they went to the ports, some here, some there: Dieppe and Old Winchelsea, Barfleur and Wissant. 5110

1023 All who were listening wanted to cross the sea, if they could, to keep watch in all the ports of England and guard that no man could enter England who might reveal to the archbishop about this matter, so that he could not turn away and run from this. 5115

1024 If they could have crossed [the sea] at this time, perhaps they might not have done that which they were to do, but it happened that neither the wind nor the weather were favourable.  Neither did God have so much hate that they were found to be in this, nor did the devil hold so much power over them. 5120

1025
Rather these four felons and enemies of God (who were hated by God because of the evil in their lives.) - they were Hugh de Morville, William de Tracy, Reginald fitzUrse and likewise the fourth, Richard Brito, they departed from [king Henry's] court. 5125

1026
Roger de Pont l'Eveque [archbishop of York] went with them; he enticed them to do evil: Thomas, he said, had brought trouble to the kingdom and harmed it. If he were dead everything would be pacified. Whatever sins they were about to commit he took upon himself the guilt for them. 5130

1027
He made the accusations which, afterwards, they uttered word for word against the archbishop when they were in his room. To each of the four he gave 60 marks. Thus was bought and sold the blood of the righteous: thus the covetous Judas had gone to the Jews. 5135

1028
These were the men who cut to pieces and killed St.Thomas, they who ought rather to have given good counsel to the king, turning him away from the path of evil returning him to the righteous path, these men one must accuse and blame, and the king must distance them far from his person. 5140

1029
If he [the king] truly repents he must not approach them for their counsel has brought upon him a very great damnation, for which he must be blamed considerably for having listened to them, for they had always advised him in accordance with that which pleased him. Counsel that follows the will [of a ruler] is not loyalty [to that ruler]. 5145

1030
Two of the four crossed over the sea to Dover, [and the other] two to Winchelsea. Nothing held them up, neither the ship nor its passage, neither the wind nor the weather. Everything turned out in accordance their single-minded will. To Saltwood they went where they made their rendez-vous. 5150

1031
Lord Ranulf de Broc went to meet them. He led them to [his] castle and gave them lodging. The candles there were extinguished, so he had them lit. They held council and discussions all night. He alone could enter and was privy to their deliberations. 5155

1032
The following day the knights from all around were by writ told that they should come that afternoon that they should come fully-armed ready and equipped fully prepared to serve the king in his need. And it was Lord Ranulf de Broc who had ordered it thus and went to meet all those who had been summoned by the proclamation to assemble, 5160


References



Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); tr. Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Volume 1.  pp. 290- Peeters. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.

La vie de saint Thomas le martyr: archevêque de Canterbury pp. 172-
edited by Célestin Hippeau

La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr  pp. 167-
edited by Emmanual Wahlberg 1922
Line 4971- Stanza 995-
 
Leben des h. Thomas von Canterbury, Altfranzösisch ; herausgegeben von Immanuel Bekker. Nicolai. 1838. pp. 129–.

Old Winchelsea - Winchelsea

William Durrant Cooper (1801). The History of Winchelsea: One of the Ancient Towns Added to the Cinque Ports. Ancient Winchelsea: Smith. pp. 1–.


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