Friday, 9 September 2016

Garnier - Meeting of Becket with the King at Tours and Amboise Late Summer 1170

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1922). ed. Emmanuel Walberg,  La vie de saint Thomas Becket. C.W.K. Gleerup. pp. 149–.

889 La nuit que l'endemain dut estre l'asemblee,
A treis liwes de Turs, la u fu purparlee,
Jut saint Thomas a Turs ovoc sa gent privee.
Par Rotrout l'arcevesque a cele veie alee.
Par ç'ad la volenté le rei mult espruvee. 4445

890 Kar li reis li mustrout defors mult bel semblant ;
Pur ço diseient tuit, li petit e li grant,
Que ja mais nel harreit li reis a sun vivant.
Pur ç'ala saint Thomas a Turs la nuit devant,
Saveir s'i entendist ço qu'en alout disant. 4450

891 Pur ço s'ala a Turs cele nuit herbergier
E saveir se li reis le voldreit la baisier.
Mais il ne porta la maaille ne denier ;
Mais il ne porta la maaille ne denier ;
Ses guages li covint rachater u laissier.
Ne li reis nel baisa, n'il nes fist desguagier. 4455

892 Forment en fu trublez li huem Nostre Seignur.
Ses sumiers fist chargier en la puinte del jur,
Rova qu'il se mesissent erramment el retur.
Li reis estut as estres en cel palais auchur,
E vit si tost errer les hummes sun pastur ; 4460

893 E après els le vit grant aleüre errer.
Après li fist li reis ignelement aler ;
Rova qu'il l'atendist, qu'il volt a lui parler.
Ainz erra une liwe, qu'il volsist arester.
Hors veie esteit turnez pur ses hures chanter. 4465

894 Desur une vert place unt le rei atendu.
E chanterent lur hures ; ne sunt pas descendu.
E li reis vint a lui, si tost cum l'a veü.
Li reis e l'arcevesque se sunt entrevenu,
E li uns aveit l'autre encontré de salu. 4470

895 "El nun des treis persones, fait li reis, sumes trei. "
Car saint Thomas aveit ilueches ovoec sei
Le prelat de Ruem (Rotrout ot nun, ço crei) ;
Einsi furent dunc trei, entre els dous e le rei.
E lur clerc se teneient ariere en un conrei. 4475

896 " Reis, fait li sainz Thomas, mal estes enseigniez.
Vus n'estes mie tels cum estre solïez
Al tens que vus servi, ainz estes tuz changiez,
Quant en vostre cité ai mes guages laissiez.
Nel fesist Loëwis pur enguagier ses fiez. " 4480

897 Dunc ad li reis surris ; ne sai s'i out faintié.
Fait il : " Sire arcevesque, or vus vei mult irié ;
Mais or suffrez a tant, car bien ert adrescié.
Altres besuignes m'orent le quer si enlascié,
Ne poi entendre a vus pur terre ne pur fié. " 4485

898 Quant il orent ensemble, tant cum voldrent, parlé,
Muntent sur lur chevals e sunt acheminé.
Li reis ala ariere, il sunt avant alé.
Mais l'endemain se sunt a Anbaise asemblé ;
Par semblant e par diz la se sunt acordé. 4490

899 Tutes les covenances unt iloec recordees,
E li reis les ad bien, oiant tuz, graantees.
Ses lettres a pendant seel l'en ad dunees,
Qui sunt a ses justises e a sun fil alees.
Richarz Malban e Hue li Clers les unt portees. 4495

900 S'oïr volez les letres, jes vus sai tresbien dire,
Si cum li reis les fist e diter e escrire :
" D'Engleis e de Normanz Henris e ducs e sire
Saluz a sun chier fiz Henri, rei de l'empire.
Saciez que l'arcevesque Thomas de Cantorbire 4500

901 " S'est a mei acordez tut a ma volenté.
Pur ço comant que il e tuit, lai e letré,
Li suen qui pur li furent hors del païs alé,
Pais aient, e le lur, - rien n'en seit recolpé, -
Aient plenierement par trestut mun regné ; 4505

902 " E que li arcevesques e li suen ensement
Tiengent bien e en pes e honurablement
E terres e iglises e altre tenement,
Tut isi cum il tindrent treis meis derrainement
Devant ço qu'il eissist d'Engleterre od sa gent.  4510

903 " Les plus vielz chevaliers faites dunc asembler
E les plus ancïens que vus porrez trover
El fiu de Salewode. Ço qu'il purrunt jurer
Qu'a l'arceveschié deie, de tut cel fiu, aler,
Faites a l'arcevesque e baillier e livrer.  4515

904 " Quant les avrez veües, les letres retenez. "
Mais li sainz arcevesques, qui mult par ert senez,
Comanda que li briés fust escriz e mustrez
Altresi as estranges par tut cum as privez ;
Car del retenir fu li moz forment notez.  4520

905 Li briés fu a Ambaise saint Thomas graantez,
Mais a Chinun fu puis a ses hummes livrez.
L'arcevesques i fu testemonies numez
Qui de l'arceveschié de Ruem ert chasez.
Par tut les a li reis, tant cum pout, traïnez.  4525

906 D'Ambaise fist en France saint Thomas returner
E cum sun messagier en sa besuigne aler.
E a Ruem se durent andui entrecuntrer ;
La li dut li reis faire cinc cenz mars aporter,
Dunt il porreit ses detes a cel'hure aquiter.  4530

907 Car li reis li dut rendre par fine covenance
Quanqu'il out pris del suen e des suens a va illance ;
Ne l'en volt sainz Thomas faire nul'alegance.

Mais li premiers deniers est encore en balance ;
Li reis l'ad mis encore en mult bele suffrance.  4535

908 Bien trente milie livres out de l'arceveschié,
Estre tut ço qu'il out eü e purchacié
Des rentes a tuz cels qui erent dechacié.
Car mult furent raienz li humme de cel fié,
E li bois l'arcevesque vendu e ess illié. 4540

909 Li humme l'arcevesque en Engleterre alerent ;
Les letres al viel rei al jovene rei porterent.
Assez firent transcriz e par tut les mustrerent
E les plus gentilz hummes del honur asemblerent,
Al rei as justises ovoec els le menerent. 4545

910 E quant les ourent fait devant le rei aler,
E durent la parole l'arcevesque mustrer,
Il s'alerent seer, n'i voldrent mot suner ;
Pur sun seignur ne volt nul d'els en place ester.
Faintié virent par tut ; en faintié furent per. 4550

911 Les justises le rei firent lunge traïne.
Tute l'arceveschié remest einsi frarine,
Ainz que cil dui eüssent des maneirs la saisine,
Ne remist buef ne vache ne chapuns ne geline,
Cheval, porc ne berbiz, ne de blé plaine mine. 4555

912 A la Sainte Marie Magdalene en esté
Furent li arcevesques e li reis acordé.
Tresqu'a la Saint Martin l'unt par respit mené,
Ainz qu'il eüst saisine de sa proprieté,
Tant que Randulf del Broc out tut pris e fulré. 4560

913 Liqueus rendra raisun de ço qu'en ad eü,
U li reis u Randufs, al grant jur irascu ?
La ierent coveitus senz fin mort e perdu,
La ne purra nul d'els faire de l'autre escu.
De quanque Randuls fist, adrecement n'en fu. 4565

914 Deus adrecera tut, qui tut seit e tut veit ;
Deus est si dreiturels ne poet faire fors dreit,
E il het tut malice, e justisier le deit.
Les justises erranz ferunt la poi d'espleit ;
Cil les jugera tuz qui nuls d'els ne deceit. 4570

915 Deus, cum par est mainz huem pur le siecle avoglez !
N'i est amurs ne fei ne pais ne charitez.
Se tuz les biens del mund aveie conquestez,
Si que mes fiz en fust après mes jurs chasez,
Ja n'en sereie mielz devant Deu apelez. 4575

916 Se j'achat abeïes u haltes eveschiez
Dunt jo seie en cest siecle levez e eshalciez,
Devant Deu en serai asprement chalengiez.
Ja de tuz mes parenz n'i serai point aidiez.
Mult achate l'onur quin est a mort jugiez.  4580

917 Si tost cum saint Thomas fu acordez al rei,
De sun fuc li sovint, qui petiz ert en fei,
Qui aveit meserré par seignuril desrei.
El païs enveiad sun angele devant sei,
Qui sa veie esneast e ostast le fangei. 4585

Translation

889 On the night before which on the next day the assembly was to be held three leagues from Tours, in the place where it was previously agreed and arranged, that night St. Thomas was to lodge in Tours itself with his private circle of people. [He was advised] by archbishop Rotrou that this was the way to go, for by this the intentions of the king could be put to the test. 4445

890 As the king was outwardly showing great kindness towards him, and because of this everyone, both the humble and the grand, were saying that the king would never hate him [again] whilst he [the king] lived, Thomas travelled to Tours the night before to establish whether what he was hearing was true. 4450

891 For this he proceeded to Tours that night to lodge there to find out whether the king would give him the kiss of peace. But he did not bring any money, neither halfpenny nor penny; he was unable to release his pledges from their bond before he left. And neither would the king kiss him, nor provide the means which to have his bonded items released. 4455

892 And this troubled the vassal of our Lord a great deal. He had his sumpter horses loaded up at the break of day. And to his men he ordered that they must make ready to return immediately. And the king was looking out of the window of his chamber in the upper storey of this tall palace, and saw the men of his pastor leave speedily. 4460

893 And he saw him [Becket] follow after them in great haste. The king rapidly sent some men to go after him, to implore that he should attend him. But he rode on a further league before he deigned to stop and turn off the trackway to chant his hours. 4465

894 Thus it was in a green lea he waited for the king. And they sang their hours. Without dismounting he [Becket] went up to the king the moment he saw him. The king and the archbishop went up against each other. And the one met the other with greetings of salutation. 4470

895 <<And we are now the three Persons [a joke about the Holy Trinity],>> said the king [in jest], <<for we are three.>> As St. Thomas had with him the prelate of Rouen (called Rotrou, I believe); thus there were three of them, the two of them and the king, and their clerics stood back from them lined up in battle order. 4475

896 <<King,>> said St. Thomas, <<you have been very poorly advised. You have not behaved towards me in the way that you used to at the time when I served you. You seem to have changed, for when I was in your city I had to leave behind my pledges unredeemed. [King] Louis would not have to pledge his fiefs. 4480

897 Then the king smiled; I do not know whether he was being deceitful when he said: <<Sire archbishop, now I see that you are very angry, but for now you suffer much, but soon all will be put right. Other matters have preoccupied me, that I could not listen to you, neither about land nor fiefs.>> 4485

898 For a time they were together, and then when having spoken with one another for as much as they wanted to, they mounted up on their horses, and set off along the road. The king travelled behind in the rear and they went off first up front. On the next day they reconvened at Amboise. 4490

899 All the clauses of the agreement between them were there set down in writing. And the king acceded to them within the hearing of all present. To his letters he appended his seal, and directed that copies should be given to him [Becket] and sent to his son [Henry the Young King] and his justices. Richard Malband and Hugh le Clerc delivered them. 4495

900 If you want to listen to this I can well tell you about them. To his son the king said and wrote: <<Henry, of England and Normandy, both sire and duke, salutations to his dear son, Henry, king of the empire, know that the archbishop, Thomas of Canterbury 4500

901 has come to an agreement with me in accordance with my will. For this I command that he and all his people, lay and lettered, those men who left the country, they have peace, and to them they may have their possessions. Nothing is to be held back, or cut back. They shall have what is theirs in full, wherever in my kingdom.>> 4505

902 and that the archbishop, and his people likewise, may have in peace and harmony, both lands and churches [benefices], whatever was held three months before he left England with his people. 4510

903 Let the oldest and longest-standing knights you can find in the honour of Saltwood gather together to swear which of its fees are to be handed back to the archbishop. And then to hand them over and deliver them to him. 4515

904 "Put these letters into safekeeping after you have read them."
But the holy archbishop, who was very smart, was very careful to note the words used, he ordered that copies of the letter were to be made and shown to strangers as well as his friends. 4520

905 These letters were agreed with St. Thomas at Amboise, but it was only later in Chinon that they was actually physically given to his men. The Archbishop of Rouen was there and witnessed them. By every means possible the king tried to delay this. 4525

906 After Amboise, he made St. Thomas return into France as his messenger on his business. The two were to meet together again at Rouen, where the king was to bring him five hundred pounds with which he [Becket] would be able to settle his debts at that time. 4530

907 As the king had to by a term in the agreement to give back  the equivalent in value that he had taken from him and his men, as St. Thomas did not wish to have any reduction in this. But the first payment was still outstanding. The king even now still owes it despite much complaint about the delay. 4535

908 Full well £30,000 the king seems to have taken from the archbishop's see, and the income procured  from all those lands of those who had been expelled, for much has been exacted from the men of these fiefs. And the woods belonging to the archbishop the timber from which was sold off and they have been razed to the ground. 4540

909 The archbishop's men went to England carrying the letter from the old king to the young one. They had sufficient copies [of it] transcribed, which they used to reveal its content to everyone. They gathered the noblest men of that fief [Saltwood] and took them before the young king and his judges. 4545

910 And when they were brought before the [Young] King and had to speak on behalf of the archbishop, they went and sat themselves down, not wanting to utter one word. None of them wished to be put on the spot for their overlord. Everyone saw the pretence; in pretence they were equal to each other. 4550

911 The king justices dragged the case out for a long time and the whole of the archbishop's see was thereby reduced to penury before the archbishop's two men could take possession of the manors. There remained neither ox nor cow, nor capon nor hen, nor horse, pig nor sheep, nor even a full sack of grain. 4555

912 From the day of St. Mary Magdalene [22nd July], in summer, when the archbishop and the king had been reconciled, all the way through to the feast day of St. Martin [of Tours - Martinmas 11th November] by adjournments and other dallying [by the king] it was only then he [Becket] was able to take full possession of his lands. This gave Ranulf de Broc enough time to pillage and strip them bare. 4560

913 For it is on the day of the last judgment where they will have to render account for what was stolen, whether it was either the king or Ranulf. There the greedy are condemned to perpetual death and perdition.  At that moment neither will be able to use the other as a shield. Of the several [wrongs/thefts] that Ranulf committed, none was ever made good. 4565


914 God who knows all and sees all will put to right everything; God is so just that He cannot do anything except right, and He hates all wickedness, and must punish it. The errant justices will gain little advantage; they will all be judged by one whom none can deceive. 4575

915 O God, how completely blinded are most men by the world, where there is neither love nor faith, nor peace, nor charity! If I were to gain all the goods in the world in such a way that my son were to inherit them at the end of my days, I would not be treated in a more favourable way when summoned before God. 4575

916 If I were to buy some abbeys or prestigous bishoprics which might raise my rank and enhance my honour in this world, before God I would be severely accused of it. and of all of my relatives none would come to my aid. I would have paid  dearly for the honour if its price is the sentence of death! 4580


Letter King Henry II to his son the Young King summer 1170

James Craigie Robertson (1877). Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, Volume VII Longman. p. 112.

Letter MTB 690.

INCIPIT CONCORDU INTER HENRICUM REGEM ANGLIA
ET THOMAM CANTUARIENSEM ARCHIEPISCOPUM.

Henricus rex Angliae filio suo Henrico regi Anglorum salutem.

Sciatis quod Thomas archiepiscopus Cantuariensis
pacem mecum fecit ad voluntatem meam. Et ideo
praecipio quod ipse et omnes sui pacem habeant;
et faciatis habere ipsi archiepiscopo et omnibus
qui pro eo exierunt ab Anglia, [omnes*] res suas
bene et in pace et honorifice, sicut habuerunt tribus
mensibus antequam ipse archiepiscopus recessisset ab
Anglia ; et faciatis venire coram vobis de legalioribus 
et antiquioribus militibus de honore de Saltwode,
eorum sacramento faciatis recognosci quid ibi habea-
tur de feudo archiepiscopatus Cantuariensis ; et quod
recognitum fuerit de feudo ejus esse ipsi archiepi-
scopo habere faciatis.

Teste Rotroco archiepiscopo Rothomagensi apud Chinum.

Translation

Here begins the concord between Henry, king of England, and Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury.

Henry, king of England, to his son, Henry, king of the English, greetings.

This is to let you know that Thomas archbishop of Canterbury has made peace with me in accordance with my will.

And therefore I command that he himself and all his men may have peace; and you are to make over to the archbishop himself and all those who left England in his cause, [all] things and their goods, both in peace and honour, as they had in the three months before the archbishop himself withdrew from England.

And you may make to come before you in person those knights who are the more lawful and longer standing (the more ancient) from the honour of Saltwood, and on their pledge you may cause to be identified that which is there which belonged to the fief of the See of Canterbury; and that which is identified to have been from the fief of the archbishop himself you may cause him to have.

Witnessed by Rotrou, archbishop of Rouen at Chinon

References

The Anglo-Norman Online Hub.
(AND - The Anglo-Norman Dictionary)
Aberystwyth University and  Swansea University
http://www.anglo-norman.net

DMF : Dictionnaire du Moyen Français, version 2015 (DMF 2015). ATILF - CNRS & Université de Lorraine. http://www.atilf.fr/dmf

Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (FEW) 
https://apps.atilf.fr/lecteurFEW/index.php/page/view



Liddicoat, Anthony J. A Grammar of the Norman French of the Channel Islands: The Dialects of Jersey and Sark. Berlin, Germany, Mouton de Gruyter, 1 Mar. 1994, http://books.google.com/books?id=pgobrmlMAGQC

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1922). ed. Emmanuel Walberg,  La vie de saint Thomas Becket. C.W.K. Gleerup. pp. 149–.

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Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); tr. Jean-Guy Gouttebroze; Ambroise Queffélec (1990). La vie de saint Thomas Becket. H. Champion. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-2-85203-111-1.

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Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

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