Saturday, 15 October 2016

Garnier: Councils of Westminster 1163 and Clarendon 1164

La Vie de Saint Thomas Becket
Guernes de Pont-Sainte-Maxence
edited by Emmanuel Walberg
Honoré Champion: Paris 1936

https://archive.org/stream/laviedesaintthom00gueruoft#page/30/mode/1up

166
Puis refist les prelaz tuz devant sei venir,
E volt k’il li pramettent guarder e atenir
Les custumes del regne qu’il aveit a baillir,
Que ses aiols ot fet en sun regne establir.
Salf lur ordre, ceo dient, l’en volent obeïr. 830

167
Li reis volt qu’il le facent, salf lur ordrë u nun,
E dit que de cel mot n’i avra ja un sun.
Tuit li dient ensemble que senz salvatiun
De l’ordre nel ferunt pur nul’occasiun.
Idunc se prist vers els li reis a cuntençon, 835

168
E dit que a nul sens nes en lerra guenchir,
Car al tens sun aiol les soleient tenir
Arceveske e eveske, que l’um vit puis saintir.
L’arceveske respunt : « L’ordre ne voil guerpir. »
De cel mot ne se volent li eveske partir. 840

169
Tuz les eveskes a li sainz a raisun mis :
« Veez cum fort nus grieve, fet il, li reis Henris.
Volt aver felons us a seint’iglise asis.
Seint’iglise est hunie, se jes i establis ;
Ne jeo ne puis pas sul contre tut le païs. 845

170
Or voil oïr de vus ceo que chescun en sent. »
Tuit ensemble li dient : tienge sei fermement,
Od lui tendront par tut ; si l’en funt serement.
Rogiers del Punt l’Eveske li pramet ensement
K’il se tendra od lui, ne li faldra neient. 850

171
L’eveske de Lisewis vint puis a Salesbere.
Entre li e le rei ot un poi d’ire amere ;
Tant a fet vers le rei ke l’amur i fu clere :
Le rei duna conseil a deceivre sun frere ;
De veintre l’arceveske fu funteine e matere. 855

172
« Sire, fet il al rei, se veintre le volez,
Partie des eveskes a vostre part turnez.
Tant cum tendrunt a li, ja mes nel materez. »
Hylarie de Cicestre fu dunkes apelez ;
Tant fist li reis vers lui k’il remist ses privez. 860

173
Rogier del Punt l’Eveske a puis a sei justé,
L’eveske de Nichole a sun conseil turné.
A Colecestre fu. La li unt greanté
Ses custumes tendrunt ; e il lur a voé
Que ja cuntre lur ordre n’en serra mes parlé. 865

174
Puis vint a Teneham l’eveske de Cicestre,
A l’arceveske ; od sei le voleit faire pestre.
Dit lui que il seit bien od sun segnur terestre,
Ses custumes cumfermt, ses amis purra estre.
« Ja ne m’i turnerez, ceo respunt li bon prestre. 870

175
L’arceveske Rogier e vus ad aturnez
Li reis a ceo ke vus ses leis li guarderez.
Pur ceo m’i volez mettre ; mes ja ne m’i metrez.
– Sire, fet il, pur quei ? Pur Deu, car me mustrez
Pur quei vus le leissiez e que vus i sentez. 875

176
– Li reis vus ad pramis que rien ne vus querra
Que seit contre vostre ordre. S’il volt, il le tendra,
E si bel ne li est, nul nel contredirra ;
Mes ceo qu’avez pramis tenir vus estuvra,
880 Car vus estes si hume, tenir le vus fera. »

177
A l’arceveske sunt a Herges puis alé
Robert de Meleon (einsi l’a hum numé),
Ki ot de Herefort idunc la digneté ;
Le cunte a de Vendome, Johan, od sei mené.
885 L’arceveske Thomas l’aveit mult honuré.

178
E uns abes i fu, ki dunc vint d’ultre mer,
Philippes de l’Almodne, einsi l’oï numer.
L’arceveske deveit e le rei acorder ;
E la pape, ceo dit, l’en aveit fet passer,
890 E ses lettres l’en ot fetes od sei porter.

179
A l’arceveske dit e jure en verité
Que Alisandre pape li ad par lui mandé
Ke il s’acort al rei, face sa volenté.
En peril de sun ordre li aveit bien loé ;
895 E ad tut pris sur sei, s’i ad rien meserré.

180
Les briefs as cardunals l’en aveit aportez,
E jure que li reis les ad aseürez
K’il ne quiert riens fors tant k’il en seit onurez,
E veant sun barnage, quant il ert asemblez,
900 Sulement de parole greant ses volentez.

181
Ne ja cuntre sun ordre ne li ert demandé
Custumes a tenir ultre sa volenté.
N’en volt estre vencu, mes greant li sun gré,
E tut li coruz erent d’ambes parz parduné ;
905 Li reis fera de lui tut seignur del regné.

182
E li reis l’aveit ainz sur tuz humes amé,
E il l’aveit servi par mult grant lealté. –
Tant l’aveit de paroles li abes enchanté,
Pur ceo ke il le vit de tel auctorité,
910 Que tresqu’a Wedestoke l’aveit od sei mené.

183
La li unt fet pramettre al rei e greanter
Que ses custumes volt en bone fei guarder
E lealment. Car mes n’en quide oïr parler.
Ce li respunt li reis : « Sel volez agreer,
915 Veant tuz mes barons le vus estuet mustrer.

184
Tuit unt oï coment m’avez contralïé.
E se volez tenir qu’avez covenancié,
Fetes de vostre part asembler le clergié,
E jeo tuz mes barons, ja n’i avra targié ;
920 La dites, oiant tuz, kel m’avez otreié. »

185
A Clarendune sunt li baron asemblé,
E li eveske i furent en grant pleneireté.
La volt li reis ke seit, oiant elz tuz, mustré
Ceo que li arceveske li aveit greanté ;
925 Mes l’arceveske peise k’il ot tant trespassé.

186
Mult fu dolent el cuer k’ot fet greanteison
De custume tenir ki est contre raison ;
E mielz volt vers le rei chaïr en acaison
Ke mettre seint’iglise en tel cumfusion.
930 Ne crient encuntre Deu manace ne prison.

187
Quant le rei nel pot veintre, n’i ot que corecier.
Mes les ordenez Deu manace a detrenchier ;
Seint’iglise voldra, se il poet, trebuchier.
Ne se volt l’arceveske de rien humilïer
935 Pur chose dunt li reis le sace manacier.

188
Ne sai que li reis ot, e li suen, aturné,
Mes dreit a l’arceveske sunt dui eveske alé,
Li uns de Salesbire, que li reis ot en hé,
E cil de Norewiz, k’il n’ot maint jor amé.
940 L’arceveske Thomas unt si araisuné :

189
« Sire, funt il, pur Deu aiez merci de vus,
De tute seint’iglise e de clers e de nus.
Car li reis est vers vus en si grant ire escus,
Se vus ne fetes pais ui vers lui a estrus,
945 Ceo saciez que nus iermes ambedui des chiés blus. »

190
Pur ceo ne s’est de rien l’arcevesque demis
De ceo k’il ot anceis en sun curage empris.
Dunc sunt a lui venu dui cunte del païs,
Li cuens de Leïrcestre, ki de sens ot grant pris,
950 E cil de Cornuaille, ki ert al rei amis.

191
Dient li k’ait merci e des suens e de sei,
De seint’iglise prenge, e de ses clers, cunrei ;
Car si cel jur ne fait la volenté le rei,
De lur mains lur estuet faire si grant desrei
955 Li reis e il en erent huni cum gent senz lei.

192
Ainc pur si grant manace ne perdi sa vertu.
Dui frere d’ultre mer sunt dunc a lui venu,
Dan Ricard de Hastinges (maistre del Temple fu)
E Hostes autresi ; mult erent coneü.
960 En lermes devant li se sunt aresteü.

193
« Sire, funt il, pur Deu, ki unkes ne menti,
De tute seint’iglise pur quei n’avez merci ?
Fetes la volenté de tant le rei Henri :
Greantez ses custumes ; dunc serez bon ami.
965 Seint’iglise altrement e clers sunt mal bailli. »

194
Bien erent a seür e del tut acerté,
Se il greante al rei ceo k’il ad demandé,
Ke li reis en fera tute sa volenté,
Ne ja cuntre sun ordre n’en ert mes rien parlé.
970 De ceo mettent en plegge els e lur lealté.

195
Greantent li k’il seient en fin mort e damné,
Se li reis quiert vers lui engin ne falseté,
Mes k’il li face honur, oiant tut sun barné,
De ceo dunt l’a desdit ; qu’or li seit greanté !
975 Ne volt estre vencu, ne li tort a vilté.

196
Or veit li arceveske k’il l’unt tant agacié ;
Veit le rei et les suens forment prons en pechié,
Seint’iglise en trebuch, e lui e le clergié,
E creit ke il avra ja del rei l’amistié.
980 Cels veit mult renumez ki li unt conseillié.

197
« Seignur, fet il idunc, vostre cunseil en crei ;
Quant vus le me loez, sa volenté otrei. »
Dunc sunt il levé sus, e il pramet al rei,
Oiant tut sun barnage, ceo dit : en bone fei
985 E lealment tendra e custumes e lei.

198
« Segnur, fet dunc li reis, bien avez tuz oï
Que l’arceveske m’a pramis, sue merci,
K’il gardera les leis del tens le rei Henri.
Or voil ke il le face greanter altresi
990 A trestuz les eveskes ki sunt ensemblé ci.

199
– Sire, fet l’arceveske, e jeo bien le cumant. »
Dunc se leverent tuit, sin furent otreiant.
Mes cil de Salesbire se dreça en estant,
Demanda l’arceveske s’il ferait altretant.
995 « Oïl », fet l’arceveske. – Fet il : « E jel greant. »

200
« Tutdis, fet li li reis, m’avez contralïé.
Segnur, fet dunc li reis, quant il m’unt otrïé
K’il garderunt les leis ki sunt en nostre sié,
Or seez purveü e si bien conseillié
1000 Ke mes n’ait plait des leis entre nus comencié.

201
Mes ore alez la fors, e si me recordez
Les leis le rei Henri, e puis sis escrivez.
Quant escrites serunt, puis les nus musterrez. »
Li reis i fist aler trestuz les plus senez.
1005 Les escriz en unt fet e al rei aportez.

202
Dunc fu lit li escriz, oiant tut le tropel.
« Seignur, fet dunc li reis, n’ai soin de plet novel.
Or voil que l’arceveske i pende sun seel. »
L’arceveske respunt : « Fei que dei Deu le bel,
1010 Ceo n’iert, tant cume l’anme me bat’en cest vessel. »

203
Car cil ki li aveient icest conseil loé,
E li privé le rei, l’orent aseüré,
Se le rei en avreit de parole honuré,
 E veant sun barnage li oüst greanté,
1015 Ne sereit a nul tens escrit ne recordé ;

204
E li reis en fereit tute sa volenté,
E tuz curuz sereient entr’els dous parduné.
Or l’i ourent del tut de covenant falsé.
Or ne fera mes plus ; trop a avant alé,
1020 E pesot li que tant en aveit trespassé.

205
Dunc se sunt li real altrement conseillié.
Un cyrogrefe unt fet e en dous detrenchié.
A l’arceveske en unt baillie la meitié ;
Mes il l’a receü sur defens del clergié.
1025 « Seignurs, fet il, par ceo savrom lur malveistié.

206
Or veum bien le laz dunt nus devum guaitier ;
Seint’iglise quiderent en cel laz trebuchier. »
Dunc s’en ala li ber ; n’i ot que corucier
De ceo qu’ot greanté cel malice plenier
1030 E l’amistié le rei ne poeit purchacier.

207
Pur ceo k’il ot erré einsi, se suspendié ;
Ne chanta, tresq’il l’ot l’apostoile nuntié.
Bien vit pur quei l’ot fet, si l’en a deslïé :
Pur delivrer l’ot fet le rei e le clergié,
1035 L’un, de mort e de mal, e l’autre, de pechié.

Translation

166 Then he caused all the prelates to come before him and wanted that they should promise him they would keep and that he entrusted them to hold to the customs of the kingdom which had been in force during his grandfather's reign. To this they said that they would obey him "saving their order", 830



167 The king wanted that they would do this regardless of their "order" or none. And said that he did not want to hear mention of this word again. All gathered then said to him that without salvation of their order they could not do this on any occasion. Then the king became forcefully angry with them 835

168 And he said that in no way would let them get away with this, for in the time of  his grandfather they used to hold to them [that is even] archbishops and bishops who had since been canonised 
The archbishop replied <<I do not wish to surrender the [words "saving] my order["].>>  neither did the bishops wish to withdraw these words. 840

169 The saint gave his reason to all the bishops : << See how forcefully he burdens us. >> He said, <<king Henry wishes to lay down wicked customs for Holy Church. Holy Church will be humiliated if I ratify [them]. But I cannot stand alone against the whole country. 845
170 Now I want to hear what each of you thinks.>> All together they said they would hold firmly to him and with him they would strive in everything, so they declared this on oath.
[Even] Roger de Pont l'Eveque likewise promised him that he would stand with him, [and that] he would not fail him in anything. 850

171 [Arnulf] the bishop of Lisieux then came then to Salisbury [Old Sarum]. There had been some ire in the relationship between himself and the king, but as he had done so much for him that the king's affection for him was [now] plain [for all to see]: He gave advice to the king on how to deceive his brother [in religion, Becket, the archbishop]; He was the source and origin of the way to defeat the archbishop. 855

172 <<Sire,>> he said to the king, << if you want to defeat him, [find some] amongst the bishops who can be turned to your side, [for] whilst they hold with him. you will not then win.>> Hilary [bishop] of Chichester was then summoned. He did so much for the king, that he was restored to his [the king's] private circle. 860

173 He was then joined [in this cause] by Roger de Pont L'Évêque [archbishop of York]. The bishop of Lincoln was turned by his [archbishop Roger's] persuausion. He [the king] was at Colchester [Gloucester?]. There they agreed to keep his customs; and he avowed to them that "against their order" he would no longer speak of this. 865

174 Then the bishop of Chichester went to Teynham to the archbishop [Becke]. He wanted him to graze in the same meadow as himself. He said to him that well he knew that if he affirmed the customs of his earthly lord he could be his [the king's] friend.
<<I will not turned that way;>> thus replied the good priest.870

175 <<The king has persuaded both Archbishop Roger and yourself to adhere to his laws. For this you want me to submit, but I will not submit to this.>>
<<Sire,>> he said, <<Why?  For God's sake, explain to me why you decline this and why you are feeling this way.>> 875


176 <<He has promised you that he would not seek anything from you which would be "counter to your order". If he so wills, he will keep this [promise], And if all goes well, he will not gainsay this. But this which you have promised to keep he will hold you to. Because you are his vassal. he will make you keep it.>> 880

177 To the archbishop then came to Harrow Robert de Melun (thus was his name) who then was the bishop of Hereford. He brought with him John, the count of Vendome whom archbishop Thomas held in high esteem..885

178 And an abbot was there, who had come from over the sea [across the Channel], Philip d'Aumone, as he was so called . The archbishop and the king must come to an agreement. And the pope had told him to effect this, this why he had been sent and was in his [holiness'] letter which he had brought from him. 890


179 He said and swore in truth that Alexander the pope had sent him as a messenger to the archbishop [telling him] that he should come to an accord with the king, and follow his [the king's] will; That he [the Pope] fully appreciates the peril to his order and takes all [responsibility for it] upon himself, if it seems that he [Becket] might have strayed. 895

180 They brought to him there the letters from the cardinals and swore that the king had assured them that he [the king] sought nothing more from him except that he should show due honour to him in the presence of his barons when they were assembled, by conceding to his wishes on a verbal promise alone 900

181 Neither now would it be demanded from him to hold to customs against his order contrary to his will; but nor did he [the king] want to be defeated  rather more that he [Becket] should consent to his will, and all the anger between both parties would be forgiven. [If he agreed to this] the king would make him overlord of the whole kingdom. 905

182 And previously the king had favoured him above all men; and he [Becket] had served him [the king] with very great loyalty. To such an extent did the words of the abbot captivate him [Becket]  for he saw he showed such authority, that he took him with him  all the way to Woodstock. 910

183 There he was made to promise to the king he would consent both that his customs would be kept in good faith, and loyally. He thought no more would be heard or spoken of this.  [But then] the king replied to him thus: <<if you would agree [to this] you would need to make this known in front of all my barons.>>

184 All heard how you went against me, and if you [now] wish to [show that you will] hold to that which you have covenanted, make arrangements on your part to assemble the clergy [prelates of the kingdom] and I will all my barons.  I will not suffer any more delay, you are to tell them, in hearing of all that you have acceded with me [to my customs]..>>


Continued:-


References

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) ; ed. Immanuel Bekker, (1838). La vie St. Thomas le martir. pp. 67-

Guernes de Pont Sainte-Maxence (1859). Celestine Hippeau, ed. La vie de saint Thomas le martyr: archevêque de Canterbury. Chez A. Aubry. pp. 32–.
Emmanuel Walberg, Paris, Champion, 1936
Transcription électronique : Base de français médiéval, http://txm.bfm-corpus.org
http://catalog.bfm-corpus.org/becket
http://www.anglo-norman.net/texts/becket-contents.html
 
Robert William Eyton (1878). Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II: Instancing Also the Chief Agents and Adversaries of the King in His Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy. Taylor and Company. pp. 64–.
https://archive.org/stream/courthouseholdit00eyto#page/64/mode/1up

William Holden Hutton. Thomas Becket. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-1-107-66171-4.
https://archive.org/stream/thomasbecketarch00huttuoft#page/75/mode/1up

Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket, in Icelandic Volume I 
Translated by Eiríkur Magnússon published 1875
Chapters 27-31 
Eiríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket, in Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes and Glossary. Chapter XXVII - XXXI: Longman & Company. pp. 146–.
https://archive.org/stream/thmassagaerkiby01magngoog#page/n170/mode/1up


John Morris (1885). The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Volume 1 - Chapter XII Council of Westminster: Burns and Oates. pp. 95–.

John Morris (1885). The Life and Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Volume 1 - Chapter XIII: The Council of Clarendon: Burns and Oates. pp. 102–.

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Chapter VI: Councils at Westminster and Clarendon. pp. 89–.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. Quarrel with the King: University of California Press. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Thomas Becket. Author, Anne Duggan. Publisher, Bloomsbury USA, 2004. ISBN, 0340741376, 9780340741375.

Chapter 2 The controversial archbishop p. 33-36-60
 
Translations


Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1990). tr. Gouttebroze & Queffelec, ed. La vie de saint Thomas Becket. H. Champion. p. 30. ISBN 978-2-85203-111-1.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); tr. Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Peeters.Volume 1 ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8. pp.76-

A Life of Thomas Becket in Verse: La Vie de saint Thomas Becket by Guernes de Pont-Sainte-Maxence (Mediaeval Sources in Translation) – 2013 tr. Ian Short pp. 44-  ISBN 9780888443069

Tools

Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales

Anglo-Norman On-line  Hub

DMF 2015

Lewis & Short Latin to English Dictionary - Perseus Project






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