Monday, 25 September 2017

Garnier: Election to the Archepiscopacy

Extract from

http://txm.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/bfm/pdf/becket.pdf
La vie de Saint Thomas le martyr. Edited by E. Walberg pp. 16-19

80
Mes quant li arceveskes Tedbalt fu devïez,
Al chancelier, qui si esteit del rei privez,
Greantée fu dunc del rei la dignetez.
Car el regne ne sot nul clerc de ses buntez,
400 E quida k’il sewist par tut ses volentez.

81
En Normendie esteit idunc li reis Henris,
E Thomas altresi, qui quereit los e pris.
Les meilurs chevaliers tint od sei del païs,
E guerrea le rei de France, Loëwis.
405 De bien servir le rei s’esteit mult entremis.

82
En tut le regne n’ot ne si halt ne si fier
Kil poüst, s’il volsist, bien nuirë u aidier.
Ki que venist al rei, de quei qu’oüst mestier,
Errament l’enveast ariere al chancelier.
410 Quanqu’il fist e desfist, tut voleit ostreier.

83
E trestute Engletere e tute Normendie,
Altres teres asez, aveit en sa baillie.
E quanque il feseit ne desplot al rei mie.
Od sei meneit adès mult grant chevalerie ;
415 Al rei fist de sa guere mult suvent grant aïe.

84
En la terre n’aveit plus large viandier.
Adès vindrent a lui baron e chevalier,
Puteins e lecheür, a beivre e a mangier.
Ses ostels fist suvent l’ostel le rei voidier,
420 Tant que li reis se prist vers lui a curecier.

85
Quant fu arcediacnes, provoz e chanceliers,
Vedves e orphanins e povres aveit chiers ;
Mes asise n’en sot serganz ne almoners,
Mes tut adès les pot, e fist bien volentiers.
425 E cum plus fu halz jorz, tant lur fu plus pleniers.

86
En Engletere l’a li reis dunc enveié.
De tutes ses bosoignes li a le fes chargié.
E il l’en aveit mult a cel’ure avancié ;
Car il le cunut bien des le chief tresqu’al pié,
430 E par tut se voleit tenir a s’amistié.

87
Dunc enveia li reis a Seinte Ternité
Treis eveskes, ki sorent mult de sa volenté,
E Ricard de Luci, un baron mult sené.
Dunc sunt od le covent dedenz capitre entré ;
435 E Ricard de Luci ad pur els tuz parlé.

88
« Li reis Henris, fet il, que tenum a segnur,
Al covent ad mandé par nus, e al priur :
Ceste iglise a esté lungement senz pastur ;
Or volt li reis qu’aiez pere e guverneür ;
440 Mes a vostre pru volt k’il seit, e a s’onur.

89
– E Deus nus doinst, funt il, pastur a sun plaisir,
Ki puisse seint’iglise e nus bien maintenir.
Beneïz seit li reis, k’il le nus volt suffrir,
Ke nus poum pastur a l’iglise choisir.
445 – Voz dreiz, funt li eveskes, ne vus volt il tolir.

90
Mes or vus covendreit mult bon conseil aveir,
Ke vus eslisez tel ki vus puisse valeir
Par tut envers le rei ; car bien poëz saveir,
Se vus eslisez nul encontre sun voleir,
450 Vostre iglise en purra en grant perte chaeir.

91
Kar pes ne s’amistié a nul jor n’avrïez
En cisme e en discorde tutzdis mes serïez ;
Ne vus n’avez mestier k’il seit vers vus iriez.
Mes s’un k’il mult amast eslire purïez,
455 De tutes voz bosignes el desus serïez. »

92
Dunc en unt li covenz a lur conseil parlé.
L’eveske de Cicestre unt a els apelé,
E celui d’Execestre n’en unt il pas sevré,
E Ricard, ki tint d’els e fiu e herité,
460 K’il conseillent l’iglise de Seinte Ternité.

93
A lur dreit escïent lur unt le mielz loé.
Or unt tant le conseil e estreit e mené
K’a ceo s’asentent tuit, li juefne e li sené,
Ke Thomas eslirrunt a cele dignité.
465 A cel conseil se sunt li baron acordé.

94
Bien quident que li reis s’i voldra assentir ;
Ne plus oneste clerc n’i purreit nuls choisir,
Ne nul ki mielz poüst lur iglise avancir,
Ne ki mielz fust del rei ; e s’il funt sun plaisir
470 Mult en purra grant pru a l’iglise avenir.

95
Or unt li moine einsi fermement greanté.
E li baron s’en vont a Lundres la cité.
Tut le barnage i unt del païs asemblé ;
Plenierement i furent eveskë e abé,
475 E li priurs i fu de Seinte Ternité.

96
La unt eslit Thomas e pris a avoé
Tut senz nul contredit de lai u de letré,
Fors de celui de Lundres, kin aveit guernoné :
Car de seint’iglise ad persecuturs esté,
480 Ceo dit ; a mult grant tort avreit la digneté.

97
Il meïsmes l’aveit cuntr’els tuz contredit :
N’est pas dignes, ceo dit, d’aveir si halt abit ;
Destruit ad seint’iglise, sa lei mis en despit,
E adès parsewi ; a tort l’i unt eslit.
485 Od lermes en requiert e delai e respit.

98
« Fiz, si seras, ceo dit l’eweske de Wincestre ;
Si purvers as esté el servise terestre,
Mielz e plus volentiers serf le seignur celestre.
Tu fus lus as ueiles ; or seies pastre e prestre.
490 De Saul persecutur Pols seras e deiz estre. »

99
Dunc l’unt a arceveske a grant joie levé,
Quant tut li clergiez l’a eslit e apelé.
Li reis aveit purquant as justises mandé
E al clergié par brief, – mes ne l’unt pas mustré, –
495 K’en respit le mesissent ; pur ceo se sunt hasté.

100
Ne sai pur quei li reis s’en volt si tost retraire.
Bien entendi, ceo crei, tut changot sun afaire ;
Ne mes sa volenté ne purreit de li faire,
Ne les dreiz seint’iglise ne lerreit pas detraire.
500 Mes tut ceo que Deus volt ne pot nuls hom desfaire.

101
U pur ceo que li reis vit bien e entendi
K’il l’aveit lealment e par tut bien servi,
Ne trovereit ja mes kil servist altresi,
Or li pesot k’il ot sun servise guerpi.
505 Mes il fu presenté al fiz le rei Henri.

102
Li reis li aveit ja le realme duné,
Ke qu’avenist de lui, k’il fust a seürté.
Les humages ot pris de tuz e feelté.
Par sun brief ot li reis as justises mandé
510 Que quanqu’il en fereient il lur ot greanté.

103
Presenté unt pur ceo l’enfant l’electiun,
E a ces qui li reis en aveit fet le dun.
Assens i unt duné e lur cumfermeisun.
L’eveske de Wincestre, ki mult sot de raisun,
515 Ne voleit k’il en fussent pris a nul’achaison.

104
L’emfant e les barons aveit araisonez.
« Seignur, fet il, a mei un petit m’entendez.
Cist a esté baillius le rei e ses privez,
E nus l’avom eslit, e vus le greantez ;
520 Or volum que del tut quite le nus clamez.

105
Del païs a esté e baillius e justise ;
Les rentes le rei ot tutes a sun servise.
D’acuntes, de tut el, de tute sergantise
E quite e franc del tut le demande s’iglise,
525 Ke qu’avienge en avant, ne seit em perte mise. »

106
Les justises le rei, ki il ot comandé
Ke quanqu’il en fereient par li ert cumfermé,
E sis filz ensement, l’en unt quite clamé
D’acuntes, de tut el, e al clergié livré.
530 Dunc l’unt a arceveske a grant joie levé.

107
N’i ot gueres de tens après ceo trespassé
K’a Cantorbire l’unt a grant joie mené
E a mult grant honur receü e sacré.
Mes n’a pas erranment sun abit remué :
535 Par l’abit volt covrir ceo qu’al cuer ot planté.

108
E li seignur en unt suvent entr’els grucié,
K’il entrot enz el quer, sa cote par sun pié ;
Ne sorent qu’en sun cuer ot Deus edifïé.
Uns ki privé li fu l’en aveit chastïé ;
540 Un sunge li conta k’uns moines ot sungié.

109
Deus s’aparut al moine e dist lui en dormant :
« Va tost al chancelier ; di li que jeo li mant
Prenge abit monial, ne voist mie targant.
E s’il nel fet, tut dis l’irai contraliant,
545 E mal li avendra adès a sun vivant. »

110
Quant l’arceveske l’ot, un ris li ad jeté.
Partie li mustra de ceo qu’out en pensé ;
Mes a Deu sulement ad sun cuer demustré,
Ki l’ot, ainz k’il fust nez, eslit e apelé.
550 Car tut ert ja changié de tel cum ot esté.

111
E si tost cum il ot la dignité emprise,
Les mals murs a guerpi e seculer servise.
Reddement guverna e clers e saint’iglise,
Tint preste de ferir l’espee de justise ;
555 Nel lessa pur poür ne pur grant coveitise.

112
Tut ceo que dut amer bien maintint e ama,
E ceo que dut haïr guerpi e esluingna ;
Al servise le rei cuntre Deu n’aprisma.
Les povres revesti e pot e guverna ;
560 De Damnedeu servir, quanque pot, se pena.

113
Li moine li diseient : quant il esteit lur mestre
E lur dux e lur pere, lur abes deveit estre ;
Quant ert abes, l’abit en dut aveir e l’estre.
A ceo qu’ert apelé, a ceo deveit renestre,
565 E la divine honurs refuse abit terestre.

114
Ne voleient suffrir li reguler chanoine
K’arceveskes n’eveskes oüst abit de moine.
A moine est, cume a mort, donee neire bruine,
Ne lur robe n’est pas a nul prelat aoine.
570 Cil unt de lur raisun asez grant testimoine.

115
Li clerc ki od lui erent li rediseient al :
Ke s’oüst esté moines e fust en cel estal,
Guerpireit il la vie e l’ordre monial.
Quant od les clers comverse, robe avra cumunal ;
575 Ne tendra cume moines poesté eveskal.

116
Par tels raisuns esteit de treis parz anguissiez.
Mes a un mult prudume s’en esteit cunseilliez,
Priur de Kenilwrdhe ; cil li ad dras tailliez.
Les regulers a pris, les seculers laissiez ;
580 Chanoine fu defors, mes dedenz fu chargiez.

117
Trop grant religiun ne volt defors mustrer,
Mes les dous ordres volt en un sul cors porter :
La cule ot suz les dras, – cel ordre volt celer, –
Mes de pans e de manches l’aveit fait escurter ;
585 La haire ot a la char pur sun cors plus grever.

118
Ne volt le muniage k’il nel preïst laissier,
U pur la visiun que Deus li fist nuncier,
U pur ceo que nul d’els ne pot unkes frugier
Ki seculer volsist cel’honur embracier.
590 Car dous en i fist Deus malement trebuchier :

119
Stigant fist l’apostoiles de sun sié deposer,
En prisun e en chartre de mesaise finer.
Es munz de Mungiu fist Deus Elfsi devïer ;
Sa jument fist ovrir e ses piez enz geter :
595 De freit murut en l’iwe, ainc n’i pot eschalfer.

Provisional Translation

80
After the death of Archbishop Theobald, the king conferred his office upon the chancellor who was in his confidence. In the kingdom, indeed, he knew no cleric of his prowess, and he believed that he would follow his wishes in every matter. 400

81
King Henry was at that time in Normandy, as was Thomas, who was seeking renown and honour. He [Thomas] had with him in his company the best knights in the country, making war upon the King Louis of France. Well was he engaged in the service of the king. 405
82
In the whole kingdom there was none so high nor so proud who could if he wanted to could so well harm or help him. Whoever came [to see] the king whatever his business would immediately be sent back to see the chancellor. Whatsoever he did or did not do, in everything the king gave his consent. 410

83
And everywhere throughout England and the whole of Normandy, and other lands as well, was under his stewardship. And none of what he did displeased the king at all. He was always accompanied by a large troop of horsemen, and his actions in the king's wars these were often of a very great assistance to the latter. 415.


84
There was no greater host in the land; barons and knights, whores and lechers always came to drink and eat with him.. [Thomas'] hospitality often left the king's hall empty [of guests], so much so that the king became angry towards him. 420

85
When he was archdeacon, provost and chancellor. he was much beloved by widows, orphans and the poor; but neither did his servants nor his almoners [always] know how to find seats [at his table] for them, but he always managed to do so, and well did he do so willingly. And on the high days [of important religious festivity] he was even more sumptious towards them. 425



86
He [Thomas] was then sent by the king to England charged with the duty of carrying out all his [the king's] official business there.and he did further it for him considerably at this time, as he knew him [the king] well, all the way from the top of his head down to his toes, and above all he wanted to retain his [the king's] friendship.

87
The king therefore sent to the cathedral priory of the Holy Trinity [at Canterbury] three bishops, who were fully aware of his intentions, as well as a very wise lord, Richard de Lucy. They entered the monastery and Richard de Lucy spoke to the chapter [assembly] on behalf of them all..

88
<<King Henry,>> said he, <<whom we hold to be our sovereign lord, through us, sends an official message to the convent and its prior: this church has long been without a pastor: now the king wants you to have a father and a governor, but he wants that this should be done for your benefit, as well as in accordance with his honourable [position].>>

89
<<And God gives us,>> said they, "a pastor of His pleasing, one who can both defend Holy Church, as well as protect us well. Blessed is the king who allows us to choose a pastor for the Church.>>
<<He does not want>> he said to the bishops, <<to take away from you your rights.>>

90
>>But now he has assembled you with the very good advice that you should elect such a one who will be worthy in all respects towards the king, as you well know that if you should elect someone against his wishes that your Church may well suffer great losses.>>

91
>>As you would never again have either peace or his friendship;  but would always be in dissent and discord with him. And as there is no need for you to do this that he should be angry with you, for if you were to elect one for whom he has great affection, all your needs would be met. 455

92 The members of the chapter deliberated in council. They summoned before them the bishop of Chichester, the bishop of Exeter and Richard de Luci, who held from them both fiefs and heriditaments, so that they could give their opinion to the church of the Holy Trinity. In their soul and conscience these gave the advice which seemed to them the best. 

93 They so much influenced and guided the decision of the assembly that all of them, unanimously, young and old, agreed to elect Thomas to this dignity. All the lords agreed with this decision. They believed that the king would assent to it. 

94 No one could choose a clerk who was more honest or who could make their church more prosperous and was better regarded by the king; and if they do what they please, the church could gain great advantages. 

95
This was what the monks have firmly decided. The great magnates then went to the city of London and assembled all the notables of the country; bishops and abbots to meet in full session: the prior of the Holy Trinity was also there. 

96
They elected and acknowledged Thomas as archbishop, without any opposition from laymen or clerics other than that of the bishop of London, who expressed his discontent. According to him, Thomas had been a persecutor of Holy Church; it was very unjust that he should obtain this dignity. 

97
Thomas himself, in spite of everything, had opposed his own election. He was not worthy, he said, to wear this venerable priestly garment: he had destroyed Holy Church, put his law on the auction, and incessantly persevered in this error: they had elected him. With tears in his eyes, he asked that his appointment be suspended.

98
<<My son, you will be archbishop,>> replied the bishop of Winchester; <<if you have been wicked when you have served an earthly lord, try to better serve, and with more eagerness, the Heavenly Lord. You were a wolf to the sheep; be a pastor and a priest now. From Saul the persecutor you will reform and transform yourself into Paul.>>

99
Thus in jubilation, they elevated him to the dignity of archbishop, since the clergy, had unanimously elected and called him to this function. The King, however, had asked the judges and the clergy by means of a letter, which they did not mention, to postpone his [Thomas'] appointment. That is why they hurried. 495

100
I do not know why the king wished to retract so quickly. He understood, I think, that he could no longer make Thomas, whose situation had changed completely, the agent of his will, and that the latter would not allow the rights of Holy Church to be flouted. But no one could now undo what God wanted. 500

101
It may also be supposed that the king realized that Thomas had faithfully served him in everything; that he would never find such a servant; it was painful for him to abandon his service. Nevertheless he was introduced as the new archbishop to the son of King Henry. [Prince Henry, later the Young King]. 505

102
Had already given the kingdom to his son, that he might surely inherit it, whatever might happen to himself. He had received the homage and the oath of fidelity from all his vassals. In his letter to the judges, the king assured them that he would ratify everything they would decide. 510

103
For this reason he who was the elected was presented to the infant prince, and to those who the king had ordered it done. They had given their assent and there they gave their affirmation. The bishop of Winchester, who was very knowledgeable of law, did not want that they could accuse him [Thomas] of anything. 515

104
Addressing the infant prince and the barons: <<My Lords,>> he [the bishop of Winchester] said, <<listen to me a little. This man has been the king's bailiff [baillivus regis] and his confidant. And we [the clergy] have now elected him, and you have now sanctioned this. We now wish that you will proclaim him to us completely quit of all obligations.>> 520

105 He had beem administrator [king's steward/bailiff] and justice of the land; he had at his disposal all the royal revenues; and [because of this] his Church demands that he should be completely quit and free on all accounts, from all else, free from all service [owing], so that whatever may happen from hence forward, he would suffer no loss.

[baillius = baiulus, bajulus, baillivus regis, bailiff, steward, Person armed with the authority to exercise power and justice on behalf of the king: the king's servant]  

106 The king's justices had received assurances from the king he would affirm all decisions, and his son [prince Henry] also proclaimed him [Thomas Becket] quit from all claims and free on all accounts, and thus they delivered him up to the clergy who then invested him [raised him up] as Archbishop in great joy. 

107
Not a long time after this had passed they brought him to Canterbury with great joy, and there he was received with very great honour and consecrated. But he did not immediately change his attire.  By [keeping] the cloak [he was wearing] he want to cover up that which had been planted in his heart. 535 

108
And the lords [the reverend lords of Canterbury cathedral] often murmured amongst themselves about it, that he had entered the choir in his coat [which hung] down to his feet. They did not know what [feelings] God had erected in his heart. One of them with whom he was familiar warned  him of a dream which one of monks had had and related to him 540.  

109 The monk was asleep, God appeared to him and said, <<Go quickly to the Chancellor; Tell him I order him to take the monk's habit and to do it without delay. If he refuses, [tell him] I shall never cease to torment him, and misfortune will befall him all his life.>> 545

110 The Archbishop having listened to him [the monk] burst out laughing. He revealed a part of what he was thinking; but it was to God alone that he revealed what was deep in his heart, It was God who had chosen and called him before he was born. Indeed, he had already completely changed from what he had been before. 550

111
And as soon as he have taken up the dignity [post of archbishop], he renounced bad habits and service in worldly affairs, governing both the clergy and Holy Church, strictly brandishing and ready to strike with the sword of justice, without ever backing down through fear or greed. 555

112
All that he was supposed to love he supported and loved well. And all that he ought to despise he abandoned and put away from him; whilst in the service of the king he came nowhere near to being against God. He clothed the poor, fed them and provided succour. He was at pains to be in the service of God whenever he could. 560

113
The monks said to him now that he was their master, and their leader, and their father that he ought to be their abbot. Now that he become their abbot he should have and wear the habit of one of that calling, by that he would be reborn. Divine honours are not recognised by secular [earthly] habits. 565

114
The canons regular did not want to allow an archbishop or bishop to don the habit of a monk. A [Benedictine] monk, like the dead, is given a black scapular. However the wearing of a monk's habit is not appropriate for a prelate. and the reasoning behind this is based on very great authority 570

115
The clerks who were with him [his entourage] also expressed their opinion. Even though he may have originally been a monk he had now been raised to this position [archbishop]: he must abandon the monastic life and order. Since he lives with clerics, he must wear the common habit. It is not as being a monk that he will exercise archiepiscopal power 575

116
Harassed on three sides by such arguments, he consulted a very worthy man, the prior of Kenilworth [or Alnwick], who had his vestments cut for him. He took ecclesiastical garments and abandoned civilian clothes; he had the exterior appearance of that of a canon, but underneath he was different. 580
 117
He did not want to display too much religiosity externally but he did wish to wear the dress of both orders [monastic and priestly] on his own body: the cowl [hooded robe of a monk] the hem and sleeves of which he had shortened as he wanted conceal this order, he wore this underneath the vestments [of archbishop]. [Further] he wore a hair shirt directly on the flesh of his body in order to scourge it. 485

118
He did not wish readily to abandon his monastic status, either because of a vision which God made known to him [in a dream], or because everyone else of those, in the exercise of this honour, who had wished exclusively to be secular, had never experienced a successful career. Indeed who would want to embrace this honour as a secular? as God had twice before annihilated two of those who had wickedly abandoned their monastic status: 590

119
Stigand was deposed by the pope from his see; in prison and locked up in a cell he perished from hunger. In the mountain pass of the Mungiu [Mon Jovis or the Great St. Bernard Pass] God put Aelfsige to death. He [Aelfsige] had cut open [the belly of] his packhorse and shoved his legs inside of her; but even then he still died of cold inside the beast; thus even then he could not escape [God's vengeance]. 595

References

Frank Barlow (16 August 1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Frank Barlow (16 August 1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

John Morris (1859). The life and martyrdom of saint Thomas Becket archb. of Canterbury. Chapter VI: The New Archbishop: Longman, Brown. pp. 50–.

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, archbishop of Canterbury: A biography. Chapter IV: The Archbishopric - AD 1161-2: J. Murray. pp. 37–.


A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket. Chapter XV: How Thomas was elected Archbishop. 1875. pp. 71–.

Eiríkr Magnússon (1875). Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket. Chapter XIV: How King Henry elected Thomas: Longman & Company. pp. 61–.

A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket. Chapter XVI: How Thomas was absolved by the Crown. 1875. pp. 77–.

 A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket (Chapter XVII: Thomas ordained Monk ed.). 1875. pp. 85–.

A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket. Chapter XVIII: How Thomas was consecrated Archbishop. 1875. pp. 89–.


W. L. Warren (28 November 1977). Henry II. University of California Press. pp. 455–. ISBN 978-0-520-03494-5.

Ælfsige

Death of Ælfsige from exposure in the Alps whilst on his way as Archbishop of Canterbury elect to fetch his pallium from the Pope at Rome in 959.

Ælfsige (d. 959): doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/192 

Alexander R. Rumble (2012). Leaders of the Anglo-Saxon Church: From Bede to Stigand. Aelfsige - Died of exposure in 959 crossing the Alps on his way to Rome to fetch his pallium: Boydell Press. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-84383-700-8.

Linda Tollerton (2011). Wills and Will-making in Anglo-Saxon England. Bishop Ælfsige of Winchester death in Alps in 959: Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 116–7. ISBN 978-1-903153-37-6.

William of Malmesbury. Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum Libri Quinque. Liber I.18: Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-1-108-04886-6.

Mongiu [mons Jovis/Montjoie] 

Mungiu. [Muntioye]. The mountain or pass of Great St. Bernard ..

George B. Parks (1954). The English traveler to Italy. 1. The Middle Ages (to 1525). Ed. di Storia e Letteratura. pp. 186–.



Stigand



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