Tuesday, 13 January 2015

Reginald Fitz Jocelin

Reginald Fitz Jocelin, named "The Lombard" (Lombardus) by Herbert of Bosham, was the son of Jocelin de Bohun, bishop of Salisbury. Much given to hawking, in early life he was one of the many friends of Thomas Becket and became his household clerk when Becket became archbishop. In June 1164 Reginald served Becket's interests in France at both the court of the French King, Louis VII, and also at the papal Curia. But by 1167, following Becket's excommunication of his father, Joscelin de Bohun, whom he greatly esteemed, he changed sides and started serving King Henry II instead.  As archdeacon of Salisbury [an appointment which was probably arranged for him by his father] he was sent by King Henry in 1167 to the Pope and on several other occasions to protest against Becket's actions. As a skilled diplomat he gained great favour with the Pope and became Henry's favorite envoy. On the other hand by these interventions he gained Becket's huge wrath for his interference with his campaign for ecclesiastical freedom. On one occasion in his displeasure Becket described him as "that offspring of fornication, that enemy to the peace of the Church, that traitor." [Warren Henry II p. 535]



During the progress of the quarrel between Henry II and Archbishop Thomas the archbishop had excommunicated Reginald's father, the Bishop of Salisbury. Reginald, who had a strong affection for his father, wholly withdrew from the archbishop, and became one of his most dangerous and outspoken opponents.

Reginalf fitzJocelin, archdeacon of Salisbury together with Clarembald abbot-elect of St. Augustine's Canterbury they were instrumental in gaining from the Pope Becket's suspension in 1168

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 338–.

After the murder of  Becket he was sent in 1171 to plead the king's innocence before the pope.

References


Fitzjocelin, Reginald (DNB00) - Wikisource

doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9613

John Gough Nichols (1873). The Herald and GenealogistJoscelin de Bohun [and the de Bohun Family]: Nichols. pp. 303–.

John Gough Nichols (1873). The Herald and GenealogistReginald de Bohun: Nichols. pp. 305–.



Stephen Hyde Cassan (1829). Lives of the Bishops of Bath. pp. 105–.

W. H. Rich Jones (2012). Vetus Registrum Sarisberiense Cambridge University Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-1-108-05151-4.

Thomas Cox; Anthony Hall; Robert Morden (1738). Nottinghamshire - Somersetshire. and sold. pp. 841–.

 R. Allen Brown; Reginald Allen Brown (1983). Anglo-Norman Studies: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1982. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 221–. ISBN 978-0-85115-178-6.

William Stubbs  The Constitutional History of England, in Its Origin and Development. Cambridge University Press. pp. 305–. ISBN 978-1-108-03631-3.


'Archdeacons: Wiltshire,' in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 4, Salisbury, ed. Diana E Greenway, 33-37
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/fasti-ecclesiae/1066-1300/vol4/pp33-37

Jesse Russel; Ronald Cohn ( 2013). Reginald Fitz Jocelin. Book on Demand. ISBN 978-5-510-59476-8.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.   J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 256–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 283–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 338–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 432–4.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 437–8.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 447–.

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2.. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 483–.

John D. Cotts (2009). The Clerical Dilemma: Peter of Blois and Literate Culture in the Twelfth Century. CUA Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-8132-1676-8.

John D. Cotts (2009). The Clerical Dilemma: Peter of Blois and Literate Culture in the Twelfth Century. CUA Press. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-8132-1676-8. 


Peter of Blois and the Later Career of Reginald fitzJocelin
Lena Wahlgren
The English Historical Review
Vol. 111, No. 444 (Nov., 1996), pp. 1202-1215
Published by: Oxford University Press



Extracts from various collections of correspondence

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket Volume 6 Epistola 643

Becket to his clerks Alexander and John
after 2nd September 1169

Take care when dealing with our business, and be on your guard when dealing with our adversaries. Maintain a constant vigilance, especially with him, that bastard, that fornicator and enemy of ecclesiastical peace, son of the priest Reginald [bishop] of Salisbury, who brings shame upon our person, in so far as he can, and makes known everywhere saying we are a traitor, and that he had been given our promise that his father would not be harmed in any way. It is certain we would no more make such a promise to  him as we would to a dog
He says, too, that if the pope were to die, he would cause us to be struck from the book of life [and not be listed amongst the righteous], boasting that he would be able to obtain this on sale venally in the  Roman curia, so to speak, by means of gifts [bribes]. He has even suggested to the king of England that he petition the Lord Pope to grant authority to any bishop in England to crown his son as king, as well as consecrate bishops as if thus he might thereby deceive the Lord Pope.
...


John (of Salisbury) .Edited By W.J.Millor, S.J. and C.N.L. Brooke (1979). The Letters of John of Salisbury. Volume 2 The Later Letters (1163-1180) Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822240-8.

Letter  216 To Richard de Bohun, bishop of Coutances
John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis Postea Epizcopi Carnotensis Opera Omnia .... Epistola 208: Apud J. H. Parker. pp. 49–.

Translation
John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Letter 59: Whittaker. pp. 75–.
Letter 59. John Of Salisbury To The Bishop Of Constance [Coutances].

The affliction of my lord of Salisbury, however just may have been its cause, gives me annoyance, and the more so, because I do not clearly see the issue of this crisis. What entreaties I have used with his lordship of Canterbury to relax the sentence, is known to Him who is the inspector and judge of the heart. But I failed, and I think it useless to detail to you the reasons of my failure, because your friend, master Gilbert, has heard them from the archbishop's own mouth. To say nothing of the rest, that which principally vexes the archbishop is, that his lordship of Salisbury has set an example of disobedience to others, and to this hour is aiding and abetting the bishop of London and his adherents, who are seeking the archbishop's life to take it away. He says, also, that Salisbury has written to him contumaciously, and sought to cloak his sin of disobedience under the pretext of a frivolous appeal. But he has not even yet repented of his presumption or renounced his appeal, but dissembling the injustice of it by a certain hesitation both in word and in action, throws impediments in the way of his superior who would correct him, and yet, with a pretence of humility, sues for mercy. No one, therefore, can prevail on the archbishop to do more than this, to show fatherly mercy on the bishop, and treat him with benevolence for the future, if he will withdraw from the appeal, openly confess his offence, and remain henceforth in his obedience. For of the archbishop's kindness, if the bishop will only do what is necessary, I have not the slightest doubt. You know what the pope has lately written on the subject, and what remedy the dean has obtained in this cause from the apostolic see. If, however, his promises do not fail, but what he swore to is fulfilled, the archbishop and his clerks will make his peace in a very short time, and a truce will be proclaimed between the throne and the altar. Meanwhile, as you musthave heard, we are forbidden by authority from telling what has been done at Rome. When the bargain comes to be ratified or broken, we shall be at liberty to tell all. But since his lordship of Salisbury and Reginald the archdeacon urge me in this matter, wishing me to write to them and tell them what I can discover, I beg of you to let the archdeacon have this letter which I send for him, and do your best to get him well through the business.

Letter 217,  John of Salisbury to Reginald, archdeacon in the diocese of Salisbury
John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis Postea Epizcopi Carnotensis Opera Omnia .... Epistola 207: Apud J. H. Parker. pp. 46–. 
http://goo.gl/gXyeZq

Translation
John Allen Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas À Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Letter 60: Whittaker. pp. 77–.

John of Salisbury to Reginald, archdeacon in the diocese of Salisbury

He is inhuman, and earns the opprobrious stigma of utter impiety who is not hurt by his father's affliction, especially when many substantial evidences of the father's kindness towards his son shine out clearer than day.  One knows that by the judgement of the Lord the whole race of the Canaanites were condemned to perpetual slavery because their father Ham, from whom came their race and their name, was cruel to his father.

...
God knows I have worked hard with the archbishop of Canterbury, trying now soothing, now harsher words--every kind of language in fact; but alas my labour was to no purpose. It would be tedious and in effect superfluous to repeat all the objections he makes to my pleas and arguments, because Master Gilbert, who I know is faithful to you, heard it all in full from him in person. I call God as witness to my soul that--to speak from full conviction--the archbishop truly loves the bishop and wishes to procure his welfare and security; but he is insistent that one who has given an example of disobedience and unlawful temerity to others, should also show himself an example to others of saving, essential obedience. If he allows himself to be persuaded by the authority of Scripture, by friends' advice and the Pope's mandate, he will find the archbishop, of whom he is maybe more frightened than is right, a most kind father, readier far for pardon than for vengeance. You can and should recall the recent reply on this topic from the Holy See to the bishop of Coutances--it came or should have come to your notice. You know too what comfort your dean drew from it; or if you do not, Heaven grant that everything he did at Rome both in this case and others become known to you and to the whole world. If we were yet permitted to publish it, the world would readily learn what was arranged as to the customs on which turns the case between the royal and ecclesiastical powers, on peace for the archbishop and freedom for the Church, on full restoration and security for all the exiles; also, what he swore and the security he gave for his compacts. So long as fulfilment of promises is hoped for and looked for, we are bound to silence by mandate; but there is nothing covered which may not be revealed, and that, God willing, presently.


In the spring of 1168, following the successful diplomacy of Reginald Fitz Jocelin, the Pope asks Becket to relax the sentence on the bishop of Salisbury, specifying the terms.

Letter 272
John of Salisbury to Baldwin archdeacon of Totnes

...
A petition went to the Pope from the king and the legates, with many others supporting it, on behalf of the bishop of Salisbury; finally the Pope agreed to pardon the injury and insult to himself, and write to the archbishop of Canterbury requesting and advising him to pardon his own injury, to relax the sentence of suspension and toreceive the bishop back to favour and friendship; this is on condition that the bishop comes in person and offers sufficient guarantee that he would make satisfaction, or else sends two of the leading clerks of his cathedral, but not the dean, to swear that the bishop had given them this instruction and not afterwards countermanded it: that is, to swear an oath in the bishop's name and on his behalf that he will make satisfaction to the archbishop for his obstinacy and injury to him.From this it can be deduced with good reason that the Pope either did not know of or did not think fit to confirm the legates' previous sentence of absolution on the bishop. The bishop had previously obtained a letter on almost the samelines, except that it laid no burden of an oath on either himself or his representatives. But he has so far made no use of it,whether because it annoyed the king, or because it was thought ineffective. What decision the two groups of messengers will carry back with them was still unknown when the bearer of the letter returned. But the Pope has written to the most Christian king to say that he will not fail God's Church and His faithful archbishop of Canterbury, so long as he can support his cause with justice.
...

Letter 278 To Archbishop Thomas Becket, when Reginald [FitzJocelin] was at Rome
John (of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres) (1848). Joannis Saresberiensis Postea Epizcopi Carnotensis Opera Omnia .... Epistola 237: Apud J. H. Parker. pp. 107–.
http://goo.gl/qZok49
MTB 316 CTB 165
James Craigie Robertson; Joseph Brigstocke Sheppard (1882). Materials for the history of Thomas Becket: Epistles, CCXXVII-DXXX. Volume 6 Epistola 316Longman. p. 216- 
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist06robe#page/216/mode/1up


No one is surprised today if the Romans cheat their friends, since it is well known, notorious indeed, that among them 'every man has trust in them in proportion to the money he pours from his coffer'.The intention of laws and canons is often twisted, so that the man who makes the richer gifts is richer too in justice. There is nothing surprising in finding double-dealing there, since it frequently happens that God's law suffers damage when their avarice invents the need for a dispensation, though reason never leads to the perversion of justice and the conversion of righteousness to a laughing stock.

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