Sunday, 15 March 2015

William of Canterbury - The Canonical Argument

William of Canterbury in his Life of Thomas Becket stated that ecclesiastical law prohibited the handing over of clergy to secular judgement. This is a case which he backs up with a long list of canons linked by commentary. In doing this William follows very closely the relevant canons of both Rufinus and Gratian.


References

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket Volume 1 pp. 25-9
William of Canterbury Life of Becket Book 1 Section 19
James Cragie Robertson(1859). Becket, archbishop of Cantebrury: A. Biography. John Murray. pp. 329–

Archaeologia Cantiana. Extracts from the Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket by William of Canterbury: Kent Archaeological Society. 1866 

Carl Rikard Unger (1869). Thomas saga erkibyskups: Fortælling om Thomas Becket, erkebiskop af Canterbury. To bearbeidelser samt fragmenter af en tredie. Tryckt hos B.M. Bentzen. pp. 83–.
https://archive.org/stream/thomassagaerkib02ungegoog#page/n106/mode/1up

Thómas Saga Erkibyskups- p. 182


Willelmus Cantuariensis
Fragment 17-
 


Constitutions of Clarendon- Decretum Gratiani

R.N. Swanson (1999). The Twelfth-Century Renaissance. Manchester University Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-0-7190-4256-0.

R. H. Helmholz (2004). Roman Canon Law in Reformation England. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52605-0.

1692-1769- Mansi JD- Operum Omnium
Sacrorum Conciliorum Collectio

Richard Field (1852). Of the Church, Five Books: Containing the fifth book from the beginning of the forty-eight chapter, and the appendix to the fifth book. Printed at the University Press for the Ecclesiastical History Society. pp. 104–6.


John Scahill (2005). Middle English Saints' Legends. DS Brewer. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-1-84384-059-6.

 Paul Dalton; Dr. Charles Insley; Louise J. Wilkinson (2011). Cathedrals, Communities and Conflict in the Anglo-Norman World. Staunton: Chapter 9: The Lives of Thomas Becket and the Church of Canterbury: Boydell Press. pp. 169–. ISBN 978-1-84383-620-9.


Canons Mentioned

[Ad saecularia judicia nullus clericus est pertrahendus
No cleric is to be dragged before a secular judge.
Decretum Gratiani pars II causa i quest. I c.5

Si crimen ecclesiasticum est, tunc secundum canones ab episcopo suo causarum examinatio et poena procedat, nullam communionem aliis judicibus habentibus in hujusmodi causis. 
If an ecclesiastic has been indicted then the case must be heard by and the punishment set by his/her bishop in accordance with Canon Law: there is to be no communion with other judges on cases of this kind.
Decreti II Causa XL Quest. I. c. XLV Palea

Gregorio XIII (Papa); Justus Henning Boehmer (1839). Corpus juris canonici: Decretum Gratiani. sumtibus Bernh. Tauchnitz jun. pp. 2–.

Pierre Pithou; François Pithou (1746). Corpus juris Canonici Gregorii XIII. Pont. max. jussu editum ... libro VII, decretalium et Johannis Pauli Lancelotti Institutionibus adauctum. Ex Typographia regia. pp. 224–.

Decretum Gratiani - C. XLV. Qui cum clerico litigium habet episcopum ipsius adeat. 

Definimus eum rite ad accusationem non admitti, qui posteaquam excommunicatus fuerit, in ipsa adhuc excommunicatione constitutus, sive sit clericus sive laicus accusare voluerit.
Decretum Gratiani Pars II. C. IV, q. I, c. I
Council of Carthage 419 AD
Canon 128
[The decrees of the Councils concerning persons who are to be allowed to accuse the clergy]
therefore we define, that he cannot properly be admitted to bring an accusation, who had been already excommunicated, and was still lying under that censure, whether he that wished to be the accuser were cleric or layman

Translated by Henry Percival. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 14. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1900.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.<
http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3816.htm

Jean Edme Auguste Gosselin (1853). The power of the pope during the middle ages. J. Murphy. pp. 91–.


Hermann Theodor Bruns (1839). Canones apostolorum et conciliorum saeculorum IV., V., VI., VII. Reimer. pp. 195–.


omnes etiam infamiae macula aspersi, id est histriones ac turpitudinibus subjectae personae, haeretici etiam sive pagani sive judaei
Council of Carthage 419 AD
Canon 129
This also is the case with all those who have the stain of infamy, that is actors, and persons subject to turpitudes, also heretics, or heathen, or Jews


Oswald Joseph Reichel (1889). The Elements of Canon Law. T. Baker. p. 280
https://archive.org/stream/cu31924029395179#page/n302/mode/1up



Clericum nullus praesumat apud saecularem iudicem episcopo non permitiente pulsare.
Thirty-second Canon of the Council of Agatha [Agde] 506 A.D.
Let no man presume to sue a clerk before a secular or temporal judge, without the bishop's leave. 
[C. Agath.] — C. XI, q. 1, c. 17 

Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum Collectio, tomus viii. col. 319 - Canon XXXII
Mansi_JD,_Sacrorum_Conciliorum_Nova_Amplissima_Collectio_Vol_008


Aemilius Ludwig Richter; Emil Friedberg (1839). Corpus iuris canonici. Tauchnitz.

Gregorio XIII (Papa); Justus Henning Boehmer (1839). Corpus juris canonici: Decretum Gratiani. sumtibus Bernh. Tauchnitz jun.

Joseph Bingham (1726). The works of the learned Joseph Bingham, M. A. Printed for Robert Knaplock. pp. 168–.

Kevin Uhalde (2013). Expectations of Justice in the Age of Augustine. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 0-8122-0303-8.

Inolita praesumptio usque adeo illicitis ausibus aditum patefecit ut Clerici Clericos suo relicto Pontifice ad judicia publica petrahant. Proinde statuimus ut hoc de caetero non praesumatur. Siquis hoc praesumpserit facere, conventum et causam perdat, et a communione efficiatur extraneus.
13th Canon of the Third Council of Toledo 589 AD: this forbade clerics to proceed against other clerics before lay tribunals;


Bartholomaeus CARRANZA (1781). Summa Conciliorum,Summorumque Pontificum,a Sancto Petro usque ad Julim Tertium,  Ex Typographia Petri Marin. pp. 279–.

Jean Cabassut (1838). Synopsis conciliorum, seu Notitia ecclesiastica historiarum, conciliorum et canonum inter se collatorum, autore R. P. J. Cabassutio,... Au Bureau de la Librairie Ecclésiastique. pp. 586–.

Ordinarii judices publicam jurisdictionem habent ab imperatore, ut presides. Extraordinarii nullam iurisdictionem ex officio, sed ex delegatione, nec delegati.

Decretum D. Gratiani, universi iuris canonici Ausultus. 1559. pp. 455–.

Nemo unquam episcopum aut reliquos clericos apud judicem saecularem accusare praesumat.
No one can presume to accuse a bishop or any of the other clergy before a secular judge.

Laurentius Vigilius de Nicollis (1732). Praxis canonica. pp. 626–.

Ab anno MCIX. usque ad ann. MCLXVI. exclusive: 21. Zatta. 1776. pp. 424–.

Bullarum Privilegiorum Ac Diplomatum Romanorum Pontificum Amplissima Collectio  Mainardus. 1739. pp. 413–.

Continua lege sancimus ut nullus Episcoporum, vel eorum qui secclesise necessitatibus servimini ad iudicia sive ordinariorum iudicium protrahantur, habent illi suos iudices, nec quicquam his publicis commune cum legibus. 

Charles Duggan (1982). Canon Law in Medieval England: The Becket Dispute and Decretal Collections. Variorum Reprints. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-86078-103-5.

Joseph Bingham; Richard Bingham (1840). Origines Ecclesiasticæ: Or, The Antiquities of the Christian Church, and Other Works, of the Rev. Joseph Bingham. W. Straker. pp. 19–.

Canons (1869). Deusdedit cardinalis ... collectio canonum, ed. a P. Martinucci. pp. 471–.

Jacques-Paul Migne (1855). Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Latina. excudebat Migne. pp. 405–.

vos a nemine dijudicari potestis

clericus sive laicus si crimine
Archaeologia Cantiana. Kent Archaeological Society. 1866. pp. 34–.

Fratris et coepiscopi nostri Felicis, et Quiriaci abbatis relatione cognovimus eo quod in insula Sardinia sacerdotes a laicis iudicibus obprimantur, et fraternitatem tuam ministri tui despiciant, dumque solum simplicitati a uobis studetur, quantum uidemus disciplina negligitur. 

In clericorum causa huiusmodi forma servetur, ut ne quemquam eorum sententia non a suo [a non suo] iudice dicta constringat. 
Patrologia Latina Adrianus I - Capitula
XL [XXXVII]. Ut non constringat clericum sententia non a suo iudice dicta.


Placuit ut quisquam episcoporum , presbyterorum , et diaconorum, sive clericorum, cum in ecclesia ei crimen fuerit intentum , vel civilis causa fuerit commota , si derelicto ecclesiastico judicio, publicis judiciis purgari vo!uerit , etiamsi pro ipso lata fuerit sëntentia , locum suum amittat. Et hoc in criminali actione. In civili vero perdat, quod evicit, si locum suum obtinere voluerit.

Council of Carthage III A.D. 397 canon 9
Gratian II xi i c 43
Canon 9
If a bishop or a cleric despises the ecclesiastical court, and brings his case before a secular court, he shall, if it is a criminal case, be deposed; but if a civil case, he must yield the advantage gained, if he would retain his office
Paul Hinschius (1863). Decretales pseudo-Isidorianae, et Capitula Angilramni. B. Tauchnitz. pp. 298–.

Richard Field (1852). Of the Church, Five Books: Containing the fifth book from the beginning of the forty-eight chapter, and the appendix to the fifth book. Printed at the University Press for the Ecclesiastical History Society. pp. 105–.

Laws and Canons about Double Jeopardy

non judicabit deus bis in idipsum


Septuagint: Οὐκ ἐκδικήσει δὶςἐπιτοαυτὸ ἐν θλίψει:
Jerome: Non vindicabit bis in idipsura.
From this text the Fathers [of the Church] take occasion to discuss the question how it is that God does not punish twice for the same sin.

Great Britain. Record Commission (1840). Ancient laws and institutes of England  Commissioners of the Public Records of the Kingdom. pp. 74–.


Patologia Latina Tomus 178 Col 1594B  Petrus_Abaelardus  CXLVI Quod idem peccatum non puniat Deus hic et in futuro.

Petrus ABAELARDUS (1851). Sic et Non. L., N. G. Elwert. pp. 406–.

Peter Abelard; Héloïse (22 August 2013). The Letter Collection of Peter Abelard and Heloise. Oxford University Press. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-19-822248-4.

Karl Joseph von Hefele (1871). A History of the Councils of the Church: To the close of the Council of Nicea, A.D. 325. T. & T. Clark. pp. 467–.

Zachary N. Brooke (1989). The English Church and the Papacy: From the Conquest to the Reign of John. Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-521-36687-8.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Robert Cryer; Håkan Friman; Darryl Robinson; Elizabeth Wilmshurst (2007). An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure. Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-1-139-46512-0.

 

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