Thursday, 27 July 2017

Garnier: Becket Letter to Gilbert Foliot, bishop of London (Mirandum et vehementer)

Reply by Becket to Gilbert Foliot, bishop of London, early July 1166

This letter is known as Mirandum et vehementer

Extract from 
Stanzas 665-713
Lines 3321-3565

665
A l’evesque de Lundres unes lettres itaus
Enveia saint Thomas, tutes continuaus.
En liu de saluz out paroles amials :
Que il trespast einsi par les biens temporaus
3325 Qu’il ne perde la joie qui est espiritaus :

666
« Merveille est de sage humme e des lettres apris,
E qui saint abit ad de religiun pris,
Qu’il la cremur de Deu a si ariere mis,
Contre verité vait e medle bien en pis,
3330 Volt saint’iglise abatre e cels qu’i sunt asis.

667
D’enfer puet saint’iglise les portes depecier.
N’est mie sages hum qui la volt trebuchier :
Semble humme qui a corde volt le munt jus sachier.
Pur ire u pur haïne ne deit nuls leidengier
3335 Evesque ne sun frere al Damnedeu mestier.

668
Mais a voz lettres puis e veeir e sentir
Que ne puis pas les grapes des espines cuillir
Ne des runces les fiches. Mais quil voldreit oïr,
A l’escorpiun semblent, al chief e al partir,
3340 Qui volt deriere puindre e devant conjoïr.

669
Obedïence offristes ainz e subjectiun :
En refui de ço faites puis appellatiun ;
Tost turnastes vostre est en la negatiun.
“ N’est od mei, fait l’apostles Pols, est est e nun nun ? ”
3345 En la buche al produme n’en deit aveir s’un nun.

670
Deus dona ses disciples poesté, ço savons,
Del calchier sur serpenz e sur escorpiuns.
Ezechïel uncore maint entre les feluns.
Quel remedie vus fait vostre apellatiuns ?
3350 Deu ensiuvez, ço dites ; mais ne l’i entenduns.

671
Remedie de tuz mals Jesu Crist nus dona :
Obedïence. En sei bon essample en mustra,
Car obedïenz fu a Deu, qui tut cria,
Desqu’en la sainte cruiz par la mort devia.
3355 Tu apeles remedie la u grant nuisance a.

672
Quides tu que la pape te voille maintenir
A ço que tu ne deies a tun maistre obeïr ?
Dous feiz l’en as requis ; ne t’en volt pas oïr,
Car il deit la maistrie e le feis sustenir
3360 De saint’obedïence faire par tut tenir.

673
Primes l’en requesis par ta vive parole,
Puis après par tes lettres, par suggestiun mole :
Plus est ferms que la piere qui siet sur vive mole.
Vicaries est saint Piere, bien seiz n’est pas ventvole ;
[104] 3365 Duns, presenz ne preiere nel commuet ne afole.

674
Mais la tierce fïee le deiz bien asaier,
Qu’il ait al tierz asalt le triumphe plenier.
E que tu me peüsses plus forment agregier,
As esluignié l’apel pres d’un an tut entier ;
3370 Ne nule pitié n’as que me veiz eisillier.

675
Ne n’as nule pitié de sainte mere iglise,
Que nostre Sire Deus a par sun sanc conquise,
Qui sueffre tel travail e si mortel juïse.
De ço qu’obedïensce as a tun dit pramise
3375 Nostre seignur le rei, n’as nule guarde prise.

676
E tant cum il voldra vers nus ensi errer
E envers saint’iglise, que devreit honurer,
Ne purra en bataille seürement aler,
Ne en pes ne en guerre ne vivre ne ester,
3380 Que le peril de s’aneme ne puisse mult duter.

677
Or voil de ço respundre qu’en tes lettres desis,
Que quant jo departi del regne e del païs,
Li regnes fu trublez e en grant esfrei mis :
Poür poent aveir tuit cil qui l’unt purquis
3385 E qui l’unt conseillié, qu’il n’en seient suppris.

678
Del bon comencement sui mult loez de tei :
Ki despise sun los nul sage humme ne vei,
Mais de ço ne deit creire nul autre plus de sei.
Des torz me blasmes mult que jo ai fait al rei :
3390 Nul n’en nummes ; ne sai delquel respundre dei.

679
E de ço t’esmerveilles que j’osai manecier
Nostre seignur le rei a escumennïer :
Qui se taist quant sun fil veit granment foleier,
N’entent en lui nul bien, quant nel volt chastïer ;
3395 Mielz est qu’il le chastit quel veie detrenchier.

680
Bien sai que li reis volt chastiement suffrir :
En escumengement ne volt il pas chaïr.
[105] Ço que Deus ad planté ne larra pas perir.
La nef veiz tutes parz en tempeste gesir :
3400 J’en tieng le guvernail, tu me roves dormir !

681
Les buntez que li reis m’a fait, me mez devant :
En halt m’a mis de poi e granment mis avant.
A ço te respundrai cum a guise d’enfant :
Jo n’iere pas si povre cum tu vas ci disant,
3405 Quant li reis nostre sire me fist sun haut servant.

682
De Cantorbire aveie l’arcediachené,
E de Beverlei oi idunc la provosté,
Provendes e iglises pluisurs par le regné,
Possessiuns e rentes e autre richeté ;
3410 N’iere del tut si tenves cum tu as ci mustré.

683
E se tu vols parler de mun povre lignage,
Des citehains de Lundres fui nez, en cel estage.
En lur visnez senz plainte mestrent tut lur eage,
Ainc ne quistrent l’autrui, ne ne firent damage.
3415 Ne furent, cum tu diz, d’einsi tresbas parage.

684
Qui voldreit clerement a la raisun guarder,
Mielz vient de basse gent e bon estre e munter
Que de halte gent estre e en enfer aler.
Les mains honestes menbres deit l’um plus honurer,
3420 Sulunc l’apostle, e plus d’onur envoluper.

685
Ço ne devreit pas dire huem cristïen, letrez,
Religius, evesques. Mais vus me reprovez,
Puet cel estre, que j’ere de sens poi aürnez :
Qui sun pere hunist pechié fait, ço savez.
3425 Fait Deus : “ Tun pere honure ; plus lung ert tis eez. ”

686
Ne les bienfaiz le rei ne t’estuet pas mustrer.
A testemonie en puis Deu prendre e apeler
Qu’en tut le munt ne poi rien plus de lui amer,
Mais qu’il laissast les dreiz de saint’iglise ester.
[106] 3430 Altrement ne puet il seürement regner.

687
Tuz les biens qu’il m’ad fait ne purreit nuls nuncier.
Nis s’um les poeit tuz en cent multiplïer,
Ne dei jo la dreiture de Deu pur ço laissier ;
Ne tei ne voil j’en ço, ne autrui, esparnier,
3435 Ne a l’angele del ciel, s’en ço voleit pechier.

688
E se nuls m’araisneit de ço, tost li dirreie :
“ Fui d’ici, Satanas ; ta buche Deu reneie. ”
Ja Damnedeu ne place que si hors del sens seie
Que del cors Jesu Crist marcheanz estre deie,
3440 Ne mis sire li reis seit pris en cele veie.

689
Quant fui fait arcevesques e Deu m’i aleva,
Tu diz que li regnez encontre ço cria
E la mere le rei le desamonesta,
Saint’iglise, tant cum li lut, en suspira :
3445 Nel desdist pas li regnes, ainceis m’i apela.

690
Se la mere le rei le voleit desturber,
Nel fist pas en apert, n’avant nel fist mustrer 
N’en oï saint’iglise fors sul cels suspirer
Qui a l’onur tendirent, quant n’i porent entrer.
3450 Unches puis ne finerent de mei al rei mesler.

691
Puet cel estre qu’ensi se voleient vengier
De mei, quant lur curage ne porent avancier.
Unkes puis ne finerent de mei contralïer ;
De la descorde sunt autor e conseillier.
3455 Vuai celui par ki vient escanles d’encunbrier !

692
Maint engin pur mei nuire sovent avant mis unt ;
Mais la force Deu est plus fort que il ne sunt,
Qui en cest degré m’a alevé ça amunt.
E Deus, qui est justise, me comande e sumunt
3460 Qu’ariere dos nel mete pur rien qui seit el munt.

693
Ne me tairai de ço que tu vols enpeirier
[107] Ma cause, e vols le rei einsi justefïer.
Diz qu’il est tuz dis prez, e fu, de l’adrescier :
Quel adrescement est de tuz dis enpeirier,
3465 E qu’a nul’amendance ne volt hum repairier ?

694
Innocens, orphenins, vedves veiz essillier,
Ceaus qui culpes n’i unt hors del païs chacier,
E maint tolir le lur e forment laidengier,
Enprisuner mes hummes e tenir e lïer,
3470 E esseillier les clers, e ne lur vols aidier.

695
Tu veiz ta mere iglise e rober e tolir
Biens e possessiuns, ne la vols maintenir ;
E mei, qui sui tis peres, qui tu ne deiz faillir,
Espees pur ma mort desur mun chief tenir,
3475 Qu’a grant paine escapai : ainc n’en volsis fremir.

696
Mais encore fais pis e mult greignur mesprise,
Qu’od cels qui mal me quierent as vers mei guerre prise,
Encontre Damnedeu e encontre s’iglise.
Mais a celé le fais e en coverte guise ;
3480 Tu n’en as nule hunte, ariere dos l’as mise.

697
Est dunc adrescement de neent restorer,
Tut adesseement e pis e pis ovrer ?
Mais le contraire vols, puet cel estre, noter,
Que servir as feluns a gré, c’est amender :
3485 Ainceis est ses saetes de sanc juste enivrer.

698
Mais bien me puez respondre la verité provee :
Guarder vols ta cotele, pur ço n’as puint d’espee.
N’iert owan, se tu puez, pur espee donee ;
Ne faiz cum fist saint Piere, qui dona la colee,
3490 Al serf al prince aveit l’une oreille coupee.

699
Tu diz que li reis est tuz prez de l’adrescier
Al jugement del regne : ne m’i voil apuier.
De la volenté Deu ne purreit nuls jugier.
Des terrïenes choses puet l’um a dreit plaidier,
[108] 3495 Mais les devines choses covient a Deu laissier.

700
Bien devreies le rei adès amonester
Qu’entendist a la pes saint’iglise guarder,
Tut ço qu’a lui n’apent laissast del tut ester,
E les proveires Deu pensast mult d’onurer ;
3500 Ne deit pas qui il sunt, mais ki sunt, esguarder.

701
Des dous que j’ai, ço diz, des cristïens sevré
A tort – mais tut a dreit ! – as meü le pensé :
Car qui veit le bordel sun veisin alumé,
Il ad poür del suen. La meie volenté,
3505 De ço meüz sereies u tu n’as bien esté.

702
Ço sace bien li reis, e tu li deiz mustrer,
Que cil qui puet les angles e hummes guverner
Dous poestez suz sei fist en terre ordener :
Des proveires est l’une ; a Deu deit minestrer ;
3510 Cil sunt espirital, um les deit honurer.

703
Des princes en est l’altre ; del tut sunt terrïen.
Seignur les unt sur els, e nostre e alïen.
Cremir deivent lur princes paien e cristïen.
Qui tout a nul des ordres rien del dreit ancïen
3515 L’ordenement desfait al rei celestïen.

704
Honurer cels ne deit li reis pas desdeignier
Qui Deus es sainz escriz volt pur Deus denuncier.
Deus les apele Deu, ço trovum el psaltier.
Le prophete fist Deus sur Pharaun drecier ;
3520 Nis mesparler des clers rove Deus a laissier.

705
Un Gïeu qui aveit per Moÿsen juré
Aveit um as proveires pur cel pechié mené.
“ Amenez le as Deus ”, fait li reis de bunté.
De Deu sunt li proveire Deu dit e apelé,
3525 Car sur les genz sunt mis el liu Deu e sacré.

706
Ne puet li reis de cels faire nul jugement
[109] Ki lui deivent e poent jugier veraiement.
Les levres del proveire sunt guarde d’escïent.
“ Li prestre est angeles Deu, ço dit Pols, qui ne ment ;
3530 Nus jugerum les angeles, les genz meesmement. ”

707
A prince terrïen ne volt ainc Deus baillier
Les clefs del ciel, qui poent lïer e deslïer,
Mais as ordenez fait sa poesté traitier.
Bien devreies al rei mustrer e esclarier
3535 L’ovraigne Costentin, qu’um deit mult eshalcier.
708
Al rei Constentin furent li proveire encusé,
E del crime l’en furent li escrit aporté,
E devant li en furent li proveire amené.
Veant els ad l’escrit el feu ardant geté.
3540 “ N’estes par mei, fait il, ne jugié ne dampné.

709
Vus estes Deu. Jugiez voz plaiz si cum vus place ;
N’est pas dreiz que nuls huem de Deu jugement face. ”
Cil fu bons emperere ; Deus li duna sa grace,
Saint’iglise l’eshauce ; il veit Deu face a face.
3545 Li reis devreit ensivre e ses mors e sa trace.

710
De la manace Deu puet altrement fremir :
“ Qui qu’unques s’orguelist que il ne volt oïr
Sun proveire e sun juge, lui estuvra murir. ”
A ço fait Deus le rei sur le regne establir
3550 Qu’il deit la peis que Deus nus tramet, maintenir.

711
Altrement ne puet pas li reis aveir salu,
Pur tute sa grant force ne pur sa grant vertu,
Nis se tuit li regne erent par li sul maintenu.
E ço que j’ai a tei par cest brief respundu,
3555 Ai jo dit a tuz cels qui sunt od tei tenu.

712
Or vus pri e requier, freres, par igal guise
[110] Qu’entre nus n’ait envie, descorde ne faintise,
Mais en nus seit en Deu uns quers, un’aneme asise.
Oiuns Deu, qui nus rove a murir pur justise.
3560 Pur nus ad la bataille vers noz enemis prise.

713
Frere, n’ublions pas cel verai jugeür.
Quant vendrunt devant li e juste e pecheür,
A la fin de cest siecle e al deerain jur,
Il jugera le munt ; ja n’i avra poür
3565 Ne de rei ne de prince ne de halt emperur. »

714
Tels letres enveierent al saint humme ultre mer
Li prelat qui deveient saint’iglise tenser.
Les custumes del regne voleient alever
En sainte mere iglise. Mais li saintisme ber
3570 S’en conbati adès, e pur li delivrer.

667 Holy Church can smash down the Gates of Hell. It is not a wise man who wishes to bring her down, like a man with a rope wanting to pull down a mountain. Neither through anger nor through hate should anyone slander a brother bishop in the ministry [service] of Almighty God. 3335

668 But I can both see and sense in your letter that I cannot pick grapes from thornbushes, nor figs from briars. For who would want to listen, for it would  be like a scorpion divided into head and tail, which would want to sting with its rear end, whilst with its front end want to please. 3340

669
How you offered yourself up at first to obedience and subjection: then seeking refuge from this you have made an appeal. How you have turned your consent rapidly into its opposite. "Is it within me," said St. Paul the Apostle, "that I should say both “Yeah, yeah" and “Nay, nay” [at the same time] ?  In the mouth of the honest man, there must only be one of these words [at any one time]. 3345

670
God gave his disciples the power, this we know, to trample on serpents and scorpions. But Ezekiel dwelt amongst the scorpions [felons/rebels]. What remedy do you seek from your appeals [to the Pope]? You say you follow God, so you have said [in your letter], but we have not heard it therein. 3350   

2 Corinthians 1:17-18
17 When I was thus-wise minded, did I use lightness? Or think I carnally of those things which I think? that with me yay should be yay and nay, nay. 18 God is faithfull: For our preaching unto you was not yay and nay.

Luke 10:19
19 Behold I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions and over all manner of power of the enemy and nothing shall hurt you.

671 
Jesus Christ gives us the remedy for all ills: obedience. By his good example he showed us this because he was obedient to God who created everything, right up to the time when he died on the Holy Cross. You appeal for a remedy when it is a great hindrance. 3355

672
Do you think that the Pope will want to protect you [in this] when by this you do not deign to obey your master? Twice you have asked for this. He does not want to listen to you, for he is master of and must uphold [the system of] Holy obedience in everything he does. 3360

673
First you asked for it in person, then afterwards in your letter, in which you used sham flattery; he is firmer than the living massive rock upon which he sits, for he is the vicar of St. Peter's, which you well know is not blown around by the wind [like a weather vane]. Neither gifts, presents nor prayers will either move or seduce him. 3365

674
Nevertheless you have to try him for a third time. Yet in this third assault his victory is total. for in order to overwhelm me even more cruelly, you have to defer your appeal for almost a whole year.  Have you no pity seeing me in exile? 3370

675
Do you not have any pity for Holy Mother Church, that our Lord God [Jesus] paid for with his own blood, who endured such torture and so mortally in final judgement? Indeed these are the very [same] words you used When you made your promise of obedience to our Lord the King of which you have taken no care. 3375

676
And so long as he wishes to offend thus against us and towards Holy Church which he ought to honour, he cannot go into battle safely, neither in peacetime nor when at war without the great fear of putting [the salvation of] his soul in grave danger. 3380

677
Now I will respond to the matter that you spoke about in your letter, that when I departed [fled] the king and country, the kingdom became very troubled and it caused a great consternation.  All those who caused it can be afraid and [as well as] those who gave him [the king] [bad] counsel, they should not be suprised at this [if it were to happen to them]. 3385

678
At first well I am much praised by you: who would treat with disdain his reputation, there is no wise man who would not. But in this he must not trust any other more than himself. You accuse me strongly for having done many wrongs to the king, but none did you name: I do not know how to respond to you about this. 3390

679
And you are astonished by this that I would dare to threaten our Lord the King with excommunication: who would remain silent [and not act] when he sees his son being led astray into great sin? It is best that he should chastise him, rather than see him cut to pieces. 3395

680
Well I know that the king would suffer chastisement; he has no desire to fall into excommunication. It is so that which God has planted He will not let perish. You see the ship blown down on all sides amidst the storm; I hold the rudder, and yet you expect that I sleep! 3400

681
You have put before me the favours which the king has done for me; [you say] that he raised me up high from an inferior position and greatly advanced me. To this I will answer you in the manner of a child:  I was not so poor as you say when our lord the king made me his foremost servant. 3405 

682
Of Canterbury I was the archdeacon, and of Beverley I then became the provost. [I also had income from] prebends and many churches in the kingdom, properties, rents, and other wealth; I was not at all as impoverished as you have claimed. 3410

683
And if you wish to speak of my poor lineage, I was born to some citizens of London in this state. And they lived for the whole of their lives without complaint from their neighbours, neither demanding anything from others, nor doing them harm. My lineage was not so very low, as you say,  3415  

684
Whoever would like clearly to keep to the reason, it is better to come from base people and be good and rise, than to be high person and on his way to Hell. The hands of upright and honest members must more honour do to him. We ought,  according to  the  apostle, to do greater honour to our less comely members and cloak them more honourably.  
For as  the Apostle says: 'Those members of the body , which we think to be less honorable, upon those we should bestow more abundant honour.' 3420

[1 Corinthians 12:23
And upon those members of that body which we think least honest, put we most honesty on. And our ungodly parts have most beauty on.]

685
A Christian man, a man of letters, one dedicated to a religious life, bishops should not say such things. But you have reprimanded me: can this be that perhaps, you think I lack a little common sense? Whoever shames his father commits a sin, for God says "Honour your father and you will live longer." 3425
[Exodus 20:12 - Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long ...]

686
There is no need for you to mention the generosity of the king [towards me]; as God is my witness I appeal that I could not be more devoted to anyone in the world than him, provided he leaves the rights of Holy Church be. Otherwise he will not be able to reign in peace. 3430


687
No one can list all the good fortune which he has bestowed upon me. Even if one were to multiply all of that by one hundred I must not neglect the rights of God. I hold no wish of sparing anyone from this, neither you, nor anyone else, not even the angel of heaven, should he want to commit such a sin. 3435

688
And if someone tried to reason with me about this, I would say to him: "Get thee hence from here Satan; thou deniest God by thy mouth."
[Matthew 4:10 Then Jesus saith to him: Begone, Satan]
It would not please the Lord God if I were to lose my sense and stray into becoming a merchant for the [mystical] body of Jesus Christ and my lord the king were caught performing such a trade. 3440

689
When I was made archbishop and God raised me up to the dignity, you say that the kingdom cried against this, and the mother of the king advised against it. Holy Church, as far as it was allowed, sighed because of it: but on the contrary no one in the kingdom challenged my being called to this dignity. 3445

690
If the mother of the king wanted to block this,  she didn't do it openly, nor made it apparent before anyone else; neither did I hear anything about it from Holy Church except from those who sighed craving this honour when they could not obtain it. Never at any time have they ceased to quarrel about me to the king. 3450

691
Can this be that they also wanted revenge on me when they could not advance their intention? Since then they have not ceased to oppose me. They are the authors and schemers [counsellors] of the discord [between me and the king]. Woe unto him through whom such burdensome [evil] scandals come! 3455

[Luke 17:1 Then said He to his disciples, it cannot be avoided, but that occasions of evil come. Nevertheless woe be unto him through whom they come.]

692
In order to harm me they have often used much cunning. But the power of God who has raised me on high is stronger than them. And God, who is righteous, commands and exhorts me not to turn my back on Him for anything in the world. 3460

693
I will not remain silent to the fact that you wish to damage my cause, and wish to justify the king['s actions]. You say that he says that he is and has always been ready to make amends [for his wrongs].  But what then is the righting of his wrongs when he makes them worse constantly and shows no wish to make amends? 3465 

694
You see innocents, orphans, widows sent into exile, those who were blameless driven out of the country, many with their possessions taken from them and vigourously to suffer deprivation, [you see] the imprisonment of my men both restrained and chained up; [you see] clerics sent into exile, and you show no wish to help them. 3470

695
You see you mother church both robbed and pillaged of goods and possessions, yet you show no wish to defend her, and me, who art thy father, whom you must not be unfaithful to, [you have seen] swords [ready] to put me to death held above my head which I only escaped with great difficulty, and you never even wanted to show the least concern. 3475 

696
Yet you continue to do even more wrong, amd commit a very grievous sin, when you ally with those who seek to harm me, and to make war on me, against Almighty God and against His Church. And you are even doing it to them in secret guise; you seem to have no shame in doing this: you have [already] turned your back on her. 3480

697
Does then making amends consist of doing nothing, always moving constantly from the bad to the worse? Can this be? Note this: perhaps you wish for the contrary, that is you desire to serve the traitors [Devil?]: perhaps [you think] doing this is making "amends". Perhaps this is making one's arrows drunk with the blood of just men! 3485

698
But well you can reply to me with the incontestable truth. You may well wish to keep your [bishop's] cope, for this you do not need to have a sword at all. It is not this year, you will be able to exchange it for a sword; You did not do what St. Peter did who struck at the servant of the prince [with his sword] cutting one of his ears off. 3490

699
You say that the king is fully ready to make amends in accordance with the [laws and] judgement of the kingdom. I do not wish to agree to this. The will of God can never be decided in this way. One can plead wordly matters by means of law, but one should leave divine matters to God [Himself]. 3495

700
You ought always to advise the king that he must strive to protect the peace of Holy Church, [and] to leave be all that which is not devolved upon him. And must not think of further honouring the ordained priests of God for whom they are, but taking care to see whose [priests] they are. 3500

701
You have thought to raise the matter of the two whom you say I have wrongfully separated from the Christian [community]. But I did it quite rightfully, because he who sees the cottage of his neighbour on fire, he is afraid for his own. If I had my way you would be moved [far]away from where you have not done well. 3505

702
This the king well knows, or you must explain it to him, that He who can govern angels and men has established two powers under Him on Earth: The priesthood is one, and to God it must minister: they are spiritual; one must honour them. 3510

703
Princes are the other; they are completely terrestial. The lords are under them, both ours and the foreigners: they must fear their princes both pagans and Christians. Anyone at all who abandons any part of this ancient law undoes what the King in Heaven ordained. 3515

704
The king must honour and not scorn those whom God, in Holy Scripture, has wanted to proclaim pure [in heart]: God calls them Gods; this is found in the Psalms. God raised the prophet above Pharaoh; God even demanded that clerics should not be allowed to be spoken ill of. 3520

Exodus 22:28
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus+22%3A28&version=DRA

705
A Jew who had sworn "By Moses" was brought before the priests [to be judged] for this sin. "Let him be brought before the Gods", said the good king. God said of them Gods they are, calling them Gods, because God has placed them above the people and consecrated them. 3525

706
The king cannot pronounce judgment on those who ought and can judge him truly [honestly and fairly]. The lips of the priests are the guardians of the knowledge. "The priest is the angel of God" so said [St.] Paul, "who does not lie. We judge angels and people in the same way." 3530

707
God never wants to hand over the keys of heaven to a earthly prince, which have the power to bind and loosen, but he has given his power to be admisntered  by the priests. Well you ought to explain and clarify to the king what Constantine did, which should be greatly lauded. 3535

708
Some accusations against some priests were brought before Constantine whose crimes were set down in writing, and before him the priests were summoned to appear. Seen by everyone the written accusations were thrown into a burning fire. "These are not for me" said he, "to judge or pass sentence."  3540

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_and_loosing
Matthew 18:18

709
You are a God. Judge your pleas as you please; it is not right that a [mere] man should pass judgement on God. He was a good emeperor. God gave him his grace. Holy Church exalted him. He looks at God directly in the face. The king should imitate his way of life and follow in his footsteps. 3545

710
Otherwise one may tremble at the threat of God: "Whosoever is so proud that he does not want to listen to his priest and his judge, he must necessarily die." God establishes the king over the kingdom to maintain the peace that comes to us from God. 3550

Deuteronomy 17:12
But he that will be proud, and refuse to obey the commandment of the priest, who ministereth at that time to the Lord thy God, and the decree of the judge, that man shall die, ... 

711
Otherwise the king cannot obtain salvation, not even for all his great power nor for his great virtue, not even if he alone rules over all the kingdoms [in the world]. And the answer I give to you in this letter is also addressed to all those who side with you. 3555

712
Now, brethren, I beg you and ask you to let there be between us neither jealousy, nor discord, nor deceit, but that we unite in God with only one heart and one soul. Let us listen to God who enjoins us to die for justice, for He has engaged us in the battle against our enemies. 3560

713
Brothers, let us not forget the one who is the true judge. When all will stand before Him, both the righteous and the sinners, at the end of this world and on the last day, He will judge the world. Then there will no longer be fear of kings nor princes, not even of a high emperor. 3565

714
"The prelates who were meant to protect Holy Church sent such letters to the holy man over the sea. They wanted to impose upon Holy Mother Church the customs of the kingdom. But our most holy hero fought incessantly against this, and for her liberty. 3570


 
Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Jacques Thomas (2002). La vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury. Peeters. pp. pp 202–. ISBN 978-90-429-1188-8.


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Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (2013). Ian Short, tr. A Life of Thomas Becket in Verse. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 978-0-88844-306-9. pp 106-

James Craigie Robertson ed. Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (Canonized by Pope Alexander III, AD 1173). Volume 2. Life of St. Thomas by Edward Grim Section 60.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-04926-9.

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Materials, V, pp. 512 - 520, n° CCXXIV
Constitutions of Clarendon: Garnier: Becket Letter to Gilbert Foliot, bishop of London (Mirandum et vehementer)
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist05robe#page/512/mode/1up

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http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/hoveden-becket.asp#1167b

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The History of the Reign of Henry the Second,. 1793. pp. 229–.

Saint Thomas (à Becket); Anne J.Duggan (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 1-175. CTB 96 Letter Archbishop Thomas to Gilbert Foliot Bishop of London early July 1166: Clarendon Press. pp. 427–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.

A Tree and its Fruit
Matthew 7

https://goo.gl/hyYJK9


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