Friday, 1 March 2013

State Trial of Thomas Becket Part 2.2


State Trial of Thomas Becket Part 2.2 - William Fitzstephen
October 1164, Council of Northampton

English Lawsuits 421B. [pp. 435-446]
[R. C. van Caenegem, ed. (1991). English Lawsuits from William I to Richard I: Henry II and Richard I (nos. 347-665)Vol 2. #421B. pp.435-446. Selden Society.]

William Fitzstephen Life of Thomas Becket
Materials iii, 53-70

Latin

...
Post, eadem die, conventus est archiepiscopus de trecentis libris perceptis de castellaria Eye et Berchamstede. Archiepiscopus, litis declinatione praemissa, ut qui ad hoc citatus non fuit, ait, non ut in lite, se hanc pecuniam et multo plurem misisse, ad reparationem palatii Londoniaj et castrorum praedictorum, ut cernere erat. Rex noluit esse auctor ejus, quod hoc per eum factum esset. Exigit judicium. Archiepiscopus gratia regi reddere acquiescens pecuniam hanc, quoniam omnino nolebat, ut quantalibet pecunia esset irarum inter eos causa, semotim laicos fidejussores comitem Gloucestrise et Willelmum de Einesfordia, et tertium quendam, homines suos, interposuit. Sub hoc fine die illa discedebant.

Die tertia, Cerci condictione, convenitur archiepiscopus per internuncios, de quingentis marcis, ex causa commodati in exercitu Tolosae, et aliis quingentis marcis ex causa fidejussionis regis pro eo, erga quendam Judaeum ibidem. Item convenitur actione tutelse de omnibus perceptis ab archiepiscopatu vacante, seu aliis episcopatibus et abbatiis tempore cancellariae ejus vacantibus: jubeturque super his omnibus regi rationem exponere. Respondit archiepiscopus, se non ad hoc venisse paratum vel citatum. Super hoc si convenire deberet, loco et tempore, domino suo regi, quod juris esset, faceret. Exegit rex ab eo super hoc cautionem fidejussoriam. Dixit ille, se oportere super hoc habere consilium suffraganeorum et clericorum suorum. Rex sustinuit. Ille discessit, et ex illa die amplius ad hospitium ejus non venerunt eum videre barones, ut alii milites, intellecto regis animo.

Quarta die, ad hospitium domini archiepiscopi venerunt omnes ecclesiasticae personae illae. Cum episcopis semotim, cum abbatibus semotim, super hujusmodi tractatum habuit, consilium captavit. Cons-Uio nobilis Henrici Wintoniae episcopi, ordinatoris ejus, qui ei ad hoc auxilium validum promisit, tentatum est, si regem pecunia possent delinire: et obtulit ei duo millia marcarum. Rex noluit. Fuerunt aliqui de clero, qui dicerent archiepiscopo, quod pro debito officii suscepti, ecclesiam Dei tueretur, personam suam et dignitatem attenderet; regem honorificaret in omnibus, salva Dei et ecclesiastici honoris reverentia; nihil adversi esse quod timere deberet, cum ei nullum crimen, nulla turpitudo impoueretur. Cantuariensi ecclesiae redditus fuerat liber a cancel,laria et omni regis seculari querela; quum quaelibet etiam abbatia vacans monachum alienum abbatem sibi electum recipere nolit, nisi immunem ab omni obedientia abbatis ejus sibi dimissum. Aliis, secreto regis aure et mente inclinatioribus, longe alia mens erat, dicentibus, Dominus rex ei in ira molestus est. Ex certis signis animum regis interpretamur hunc esse, quod dominus archiepiscopus super omnibus, et super reddendo archiepiscopatu, omnino misericordiae regis se supponat. Inter quos et Hilarius Cicestrensis in partem regis inclinatior, ait ei: Utinam posses esse non archiepiscopus, et remanere Thomas. Hic etiam alias dixit de eo; Omnis plantatio, quam non plantavit pater coelestis, eradicabitur. Quasi diceret, quia electionem ejus regis declarata voluntas prsecessit. De quo archiepiscopus, postea in exilio suo, alicui dixit: Et hic inter fratres locum obtinuit Judae proditoris. Postmodumque, ante revocationem et pacem archiepiscopi, quasi a Deo percussus, expiravit. Iste Cicestrensis persecutus, pro se et aliis quibusdam complicibus suis, ait; Ex convictu et familiaritate cancellarise, regem melius nostis quam nos. Indubitatum est nobis, contendendo an cedendo melius vincatur. In cancellaria ei, et in pace et in guerra, probe et laudabiliter officiosus, non sine invidia tamen, laudem invenistis: qui vobis tunc inviderunt, nunc regem accendunt adversus vos. Quis de tanto ratiocinio, de tam incerta pecunia posset spondere pro vobis? Dicitur, regem dixisse, quod non amplius in Anglia simul eritis, ille rex, vos archiepiscopus. Ad misericordiam "ejus relinquere omnia tutius est; ne forte, quod absit, vos tanquam cancellarium et rationalem suum, pro pecunia sua conventum, tanquam reum repetundarum et fidejussoribus carentem retineat, vel manum in vos mittat; unde ecclesia Angliae dolorem, et regni facies contrahat ruborem.

Dicebat aliquis, Absit ut sic sibi et corporis sui saluti consulat, et Cantuariensem ecclesiam, quae eum sibi elegit, inhonoret. Nullus hoc suorum fecit antecessorum; et tamen persecutiones in diebus illis passi sunt. Prseterea beneficium archiepiscopale villas et hujusmodi in manu domini regis forte posset, salvo jure ecclesiae, refutare ad tempus; suum officium vero nequaqnam. Ita in varias consulti distrahebantur sententias: aliis sic, aliis vero non sic.

Quinta dies, quae et dominica erat, tota consiliis dedita est. Vix reficiendi hora respirare licebat. Archiepiscopus ab hospitio non discessit.

Sexta die, languor repente ut fit ortus, eum moratus est, quo minus ad curiam iret. Siquidem renes ejus frigore et dolore contremuerunt: oportuitque cervicalia calefacere, et vicissim apponere. Quo audito, rex misit omnes comites suos, barones plurimos, responsum captati consilii quserens ab eo, et proponens, velletne de reddenda ratiorie receptorum, tempore cancellariae, de vacantibus ecclesiis fidejussoriam prsestare cautionem, et super hoc curise suae stare judicio. Respondit per episcopos archiepiscopus, quod scilicet ei pro corporis adversa valetudine, in crastino ad curiam veniret, facturus quod deberet. In crastino mane, ad quoddam altare sancti Stephani protomartyris celebravit missam, Etenim sederunt principes. Illius missae cantationem statim insidiantes ei regis delatores ei nuntiant, maligne interpretantes, quod pro se, quasi altero Stephano protomartyre, contra regem et suos iniquos eum prosequentes, archiepiscopus illam missam celebraret. Post ad curiam vadit. Obiter prsecedenti eum ait Alexandro crucis suse bajulo; Melius egissem, si in nostris instrumentis venissem. Proposuerat enim, quod nudis pedibus incedens, et revestitus, et crucem bajulans, ad regem intraret, ei pro pace ecclesise supplicaturus. Sed ab hoc proposito eum clerici sui averterunt, neque quod crucem tollere vellet. Intraturus in aulam castri, quum equo descendisset, crucem, quam prseviam bajulaverat Alexander Wallensis, in manibus accepit. Aderat ibi ad ostium aulse episcopus praedictus Gilbertus Londoniensis; cui Hugo de Nunant, quidam archidiaconus Lexoviensis, qui cum archiepiscopo venerat et de domo ejus erat; Domine prsesul Londoniensis, ut quod sustines, quod crucem ipse bajulat? Episcopus; Bone homo, semper fuit stultus, et semper erit. Omnes enim, archiepiscopo ingresso viam cedebant. In cameram se recepit; loco solito sedit; episcopi juxta eum, Londoniensis propius. Qui aderant, obstupuere omnes, et in eum oculi omnium intendebant. Episcopus Londoniensis suadebat, ut crucem uni clericorum suorum traderet. Paratum eum dicebat, quasi vellet totum regnum turbare. Crucem, ait Londoniensis, in manibus tenetis; si modo rex gladium suum accipiat, en bene ornatum regem, bene ornatum archiepiscopum. Archiepiscopus; Si fieri posset, meum, inquit, esset semper eam in manibus propriis ferre: nunc autem scio quid faciam. Equidem ut pacem Dei conservem, personse mess et Anglorum ecclesise. Dicis ut libet, tu si hic sis, aliter sentias. Si autem dominus rex, ut dicis, modo gladium acciperet, hoc utique signum pacis non esset.

Forte memor erat archiepiscopus, in quam arcto res fuerat apud Clarendonam, quando, erumpentibus lacrymis, nuncii regis ad eum venerunt.

Vocati ad regem omnes episcopi, multam ibi introrsus moram faciunt; et cum eis Rogerus ille archiepiscopus Eboraci, qui ultimus ad curiam veniebat, ut conspectior ingrederetur, et de consilio illo regis esse non videretur: qui et suam e regione anticrucem sibi praeferri faciebat,

"quasi pila minantia pilis." 

Prohibitus etiam a domino papa, literis sibi emissis, ne in provincia Cantuariensi crucem antesignacius ejus ferret: sed accepta prohibitione de falsa domini Cantuariensis suggestione, appellationem interposuerat, qua se tutum gerebat. Nec mirum, si dolor, et gemitus, et contritio cordis obsedissent archiepiscopum: nam audierat, quod ea die, vel per sententiam qualemcunque caperetur, vel si hoc evaderet, facta contra eum pravorum conjuratione, occideretur, congressus, quasi rege nesciente. Interim silentio ait archiepiscopo suus in divina pagina magister Herbertus: Domine, si forte miserint manus impias in vos, in promptu habeatis excommunicationis in eos ferre sententiam: ut tamen spiritus salvus fiat in die Domini. Cui Willelmus filius Stephani, qui ad pedes archiepiscopi assidebat, aliquantulum clare dixit, ut audiret archiepiscopus: Absit hoc ab eo; non ita fecerunt sancti apostoli et martyres Dei, cum caperentur et raperentur sublimes: potius, si hoc contigerit, oret pro eis et ignoscat, et in sua patientia animam suam possideat. Si enim eum pro causa justitiae et libertatis ecclesiasticae pati contigerit, prsestante Domino, anima ejus erit in requie, memoria in benedictione. Si sententiam in eos proferret, videretur omnibus, quod ex ira et impatientia, hoc quod posset, in ultionem sui fecisset. Et proculdubio contra decreta ageret; ut scribit beatus Gregorius Januario archiepiscopo: Nil te ostendis de coelestibus cogitare, sed terrenam te habere conversationem significas, dum pro vindicta propriae injuriae, quod sacris regulis prohibetur, maledictionem anathematis invexisti. Johannes Planeta haec audiens, lacrymas erumpentes laborabat retinere. Similiter et Radulphus de Diceto, archidiaconus Londoniensis, postea decanus, plurimum ea die ibi lacrymatus est. Archiepiscopus talia audiens, conferebat in corde suo. Post modicum, idem Willelmus filius Stephani volens loqui archiepiscopo, et a quodam marescallo regis, qui cum virga sua astabat, prohibitus, dicente, quod nullus ei loqueretur: Post intervallum, intendens in archiepiscopum, erectione oculorum et motu labiorum, signum fecit ei, quod crucis suse exemplum, et crucifixi, quam tenebat, imaginem respiceret, et quod in oratione esset. Archiepiscopus signum illud intellexit bene, et fecit sic, confortatus in Domino. Quod, post plures annos, archiepiscopus in Galliis exul apud sanctum Benedictum supra Ligerim, eidem Willelmo ad dominum papam eunti, inter caeteram angustiarum suarum recordationem memoravit.

[Sed, rex Christiane, quid agis? Ratione Baronia? et possessionis in curia tua laica judicare facis filius patrem, subditus archiepiscopum, ovis pastorem, quum in curia laica nec minimus clericus respondere teneatur obnoxius? Ais non sed rex baronem. Ad quod: Majus est in te quod Christianus es, quod ovis Dei es, quod filius adoptionis Dei es, quam quod rex es. Et in illo majus est, quod archiepiscopus, quod vicarius Jesu Christi quam quod baronius est. Attend. status. Minoris est ejus possessio quam ejus ordo, sed praejudicat majus minori, dignius indigniori. Ergo fortior et efficacior debet esse ordo, ut eum a foro tuo eximat, quam baronia et possessio ut eum ibi obnoxium retineat. Et, si altius attendas ipsam ejus possessionem, non est ejus sed ecclesise. Fuit saecularis: data Deo facta est ecclesiastica. Absorpta est in ea ssecularitas a titulo divini juris. Unde nec ratione ejus seculari judicio tenetur archiepiscopus obnoxius. Itaque nec ratione personae nec ratione rei quam possidebat, tenetur judicio curise judicandus. Archiepiscopus reservandus est judicio solius papse; papa solius Dei. Si quid habebas adversus eum quod concordise et caritatis interventu non posset mitigari, Domino papae segregasse debueras: juri ab eo avocatus nunciis nostris episcopis et clericis ibi responderet: vel a latere Domini papae in regnum vestrum impetrasses mitti legatos cum judiciariae potestatis plenitudine. Episcopus Herefordensis, magister Robertus de Melidono, qui amplius quam quadraginta annos Parisiis docuerat dialecticam et divinam paginam, una dierum in quodam consessu episcoporum aliquot, et plurium clericorum lacrimabilem quaestionem proposuit: Si contingat, inquiens, quod absit, dominum archiepiscopum in hac causa pro libertate ecclesia occidi, numquid martyrem eum habebimus? Pro matre fide occumbere est esse martyrem. Ad quod aliquis: Proculdubio siquid quod absit ita contingeret, dicendum esset eum martyrii coronam gloriosissime adeptum. Non sola fides est causa martyrii: sed plures sunt causae, veritas, libertas ecclesise, caritas patriae vel proximorum, unaque sufficiens causa, dum Deus sit in causa. Beatus Joannes Baptista de fidei articulis cum Herode vel Herodiade non tractaverat, sed pro veritate occubuit, quia dixit: Non licet tibi habere uxorem
fratris tui. Similiter et iste dicit: Non licet tibi, rex, ecclesiam hac opprimere servitute, ut constitutionibus tuis, quae sunt contra canones, ecclesiastici viri ordinati Dei teneantur obnoxii. Item, septem fratres, inspectante et hortante matre ut starent viriliter, martyrii genera diversa passi sunt, quia de esu carnis porcinae mandatum Dei et observantias patrum noluerunt praevaricari. Beatus quoque Lanfrancus archiepiscopus sanctum Anselmum, tunc abbatem, consuluit de sancto Alphego, si inter martyres Dei esset habendus; proponens quod ideo ab alienigenis hostibus, Angliam navigio ingressis, esset occisus, quia aurum quod filiis et hominibis Cantuariensis ecclesise indixerant, noluerit dare. Beatus Anselmus: In illo praecipuus est habendus, qui pro vitse suae defensione vel prolongatione noluit filios et proximos suos vexari in aeris quod hostes indixerant, solutione. Pro libertate quidem et salute proximorum occubuit. Majorem hac caritatem nemo habet, quam ut animam suam ponat quis pro amicis suis. Et titulus innocentiae, ubi nullum certamen praecessit, martyrem facit. Unde et Abel dicitur primus coronatus in martyrio. Sane etiam paganorum haec sana fuit sententia:

.... acerba fata Romanos agunt
Scelusque fraternae necis:

Ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi Sacer nepotibus cruor.] 

Deus bone, quam multi clericorum et militum, qui aderant, veras et luculentas de contemptu mundi proferebant sententias, cum solus ibi crucem tenens sedebat archiepiscopus et omnes suffraganei episcopi ejus; et comites et barones ad regem evocati essent, et elongati ab eo. Dicebat aliquis: O seculum captiosum! cujus tanquam maris tranquilli, quamvis aliquando serena sit superficies, intus tamen tempestates habet absconditas. Alius aliquis: Omnium rerum vicissitudo est. Amor Domini feudum non est. O honores mundi! in quibus etiam quae sperantur, timenda sunt.

Episcopi introrsus cum rege colloquentes, inter caetera dixerunt ei, quod ipsa die quum venissent ad archiepiscopum, malae tractationis redarguti sunt ab eo, quod scilicet nuper eum inimicitius tractassent cum baronibus, et severius justo judicassent, et inaudito more: quoniam etsi pro una absentia, quam supersisam regis dicunt, non tamen contumacia judicari deberet, non deberent eum condemnasse ad misericordiam regis, in poenam pecuniariam omnium bonorum mobilium. Hoc enim modo destrui posset Cantuariensis ecclesia, si rex immisericors eum obdurare vellet. Et ipsis episcopis baronibusque captiosum tale in tali casu posset esse judicium. Sed constitutum esse in singulis comitatibus summam uham pecunise, condemnatis in poenam pecuniariam ad misericordiam regis solvendam. In Londonia siquidem centum solidi constituti sunt. In Cantia, quie mari propius admota, piratas a litore Angliae habet arcere, et primum sibi ictum in bellis contra hostes alienigenas vendicat; quo majus est ei onus, major est ei data libertas: et ibi quadraginta solidi constituti sunt taliter condemnatis. Ipseque domicilium et sedem suam habens in Cantia, saltem ad legem Cantiae judicari et taxari deberet. Dicebant etiam episcopi, quod adhuc ipsa die, infra decem dies datae sententise, eos ad dominum papam appellaverat; et ne de csetero eum judicarent pro seculari querela quse de tempore ante archiepiscopum ei moveretur, auctoritate domini papae prohibuerat.

Motus rex, misit ei comites suos et barones plurimos, quserere ab eo, si hujus appellationis et prohibitionis se gereret auctorem; maxime cum homo ejus ligius esset, tenereturque ei et communi sacramento et speciali apud Clarendonam stipulatione in verbo veritatis, quod regales suas dignitates in bona fide, sine dolo malo et legitime conservaret. Inter quas, haec una est, ut episcopi ejus omnibus assint judiciis, praeterquam judicio sanguinis. Quaerere etiam ab eo, si vellet cavere, datis vadibus, de ratiocinio cancellariae reddendo, et super hoc curise ejus stare judicio. Ad quod ille, respecta crucifixi imagine, animum et vultum firmans et residens, ut suam archiepiscopi conservaret dignitatem, luculentam et aequalem, ut nec in uno verbo subsisteret, orationem habuit hujusmodi.

Viri, fratres, domini regis comites et barones, ego equidem domino nostro regi, ligio, homanagio, fidelitate et sacramento adstrictus sum: sed sacramentum maxime sacerdotale comites habet justitiam et aequitatem. Honori et fidelitati domini regis teneor, tam devota quam debita subjectione, propter Deum, obsequium in omnibus prsestare, salva Dei obedientia, et dignitate ecclesiastica, et personae meae honore episcopali, litem declinans, ut qui neque ad exponendum ratiocinium, neque ad causam aliquam, praeterquam ad causam Johannis, vocationem habui, neque alii in causa responsioni faciendae vel judicio audiendo, teneor hic obnoxius. Fateor et recolo, me plurimas administrationes et dignitates a domino rege suscepisse; in quibus ei fideliter deservivi, citra et ultra mare: et etiam, reditibus meis propriis omnibus in servitio ejus expensis, gaudeo quod seris plurimi debitorem me creditoribus obligavi. Quum autem ex permissione divina, et domini regis gratia, archiepiscopus electus consecrari deberem, ante consecrationem a retra, habemus quod de vobis plurimum queramur. Plurimum nos episcopos vestros offendistis; in angiportu magno nos inclusistis, quasi inter malleum et incudem nos misistis, hac prohibitione vestra; cui si non paruerimus, inobedientiae, si paruerimus, constitutionis et offensae regise vinculis illaqueamur. Nuper enim apud Clarendonam vobiscum congregati, a domino rege conventi fuimus de observandis regalibus suis dignitatibus; et ne forte haesitare possemus, ipsas de quibus loquebatur consuetudines suas regales scriptas nobis ostendit. Tandem illis spospondimus assensum, promisimus observantiam: vos primo loco, nos suffraganei vestri postmodum, ex vestro praecepto. Ad hsec cum super hoc exigeret a nobis dominus rex cautionem juratoriam, et per sigillorum nostrorum impressionem, diximus, sufficere sibi debere pro sacramento sacerdotali, quod dicebamus ei, in verbo veritatis, regales suas illas dignitates nos observaturos in bona fide, sine dolo malo, et legitime. Dominus rex persuasus adquievit. Quo contra nunc nos venire compellitis, interdicendo, ne ei, quod de nobis exigit, adesse possimus judicio. Ab hoc gravamine, et ne quid ad laesionem nostram addatis, dominum papam appellamus, et hac vice prohibitioni vestrae prsestamus obedientiam.

Archiepiscopus: Quod dicitis, audio, et Deo propitio appellationis prosecutioni adero. Clarendonse autem nihil concessum est a me, vel a vobis per me, nisi salvo honore ecclesiastico. Ut enim vos ipsi dicitis, has tres ibi retinuimus determinationes, in bona fide, sine dolo malo, et legitime; per quas salvse sunt ecclesiis nostris dignitates, quas e jure pontificio habemus. Quod enim contra fidem ecclesiae debitam et contra leges Dei est, non potest in bona fide et legitime observari: Item, non est Christiani regis dignitas, ubi ecclesiastica, quam observandam juravit, perit libertas. Ad haec, easdem quas dicitis dignitates, regales scriptas, dominus rex summo pontifici confirmandas transmisit; et reportatae sunt ab eo potius improbatae quam approbatse. Exemplum nobis dedit in doctrinam, ut et nos ita faciamus, parati cum ecclesia Romana recipere quse recipit, respuere quse respuit. Praeterea si lapsi sumus Clarendonae, caro enim infirma, spiritum resumere debemus, et in virtute Spiritus Sancti contra hostem antiquum eniti; qui utrumque procurat, ut et qui stat cadat, et qui cecidit non resurgat. Si sub stipulatione in verbo veritatis ibi concessimus vel juravimus injusta, nostis quia illicita jurantes nullo jure obligantur.

Redeunt ad regem episcopi, et ejus pace a judicando Archiepiscopum excusati a baronibus summoti seorsum sedent; nec minus a comitibus et baronibus suum exigit rex de archiepiscopo judicium. Evocantur quidam vicecomites et secundae dignitatis barones, antiqui dierum, ut addantur eis et assint judicio. Post aliquantam moram ad archiepiscopum redeunt proceres. Comes Legecestriae Robertus, qui maturitate aetatis et morum aliis prominebat, quibusdam aliorum imponens ut pronunciarent, renitentibus coepit negotium Clarendonae habitum articulatim commemorare, ut superius fecit; at archiepiscopo minus hilaris Hylarius Cicestrensis episcopus, quasi inde manifesta erat regise majestatis laesio, et promissionis in verbo veritatis ibi factse transgressio: dicebatque archiepiscopo, quod suum audiret judicium. Sed non plura passus, ait archiepiscopus, Quid est quod facere vultis? Venistis me judicare? non debetis. Judicium est sententia lata post controversiam. Ego hodie nihil dixi, ut in causa. Ad nullam causam huc vocatus fui, prseterquam ad causam Johannis, qui mecum non est expertus. Ad haec me judicare non potestis. Ego qualiscunque pater vester sum; vos autem proceres palatii, laicae potestates, seculares personae. Judicationem vestram non audiam. Recedunt proceres. Post intervallum surgens archiepiscopus, et crucem suam bajulans, ostium petebat, quod tota die obstrictissime observatum, quasi ultro apertum est ei. Aliquis maliloquus prosequens, eum ut perjurum regis exire dixit; aliquis, tanquam proditorem eum recedere, et domini sui regis judicium asportare.

O quantum sustinuit in illa die in spiritu martyrium! sed felicior rediit a conspectu concilii; quoniam dignus habitus est pro nomine Jesu compati. Ille in aula hominibus plena ad fascem lignorum non visum sibi offendit, sed non cecidit. Ad ostium, ubi equi sui erant, venit. Suum ascendeas, magistrum Herbertum, qui equum proprium, propter pressuram nimiam, tam cito habere non poterat, secum ad hospitium transvexit, ad monasterium sancti Andreae. Facta oratione ante altare, crucem postea secus aram beatae Maria? deposuit. Sedit, et domestici ejus circa eum: tunc ait ei Willelmus filius Stephani: Tsta equidem, ista fuit amara dies. Cui ille, Ultima erit amarior. Et post modicum, suos hoirtatus, ait: Quisque vestrum in silentio et pace sua se habeat. Amare verbum de ore vestro non exeat. Nulli maledico quicquam respondeatis. Sinite eos conviciari. Superioris personae est hoc pati; inferioris, hoc facere. Ut illi suarum linguarum, ita nos nostrarum aurium domini simus. Non mihi maledicitur; sed ei qui, quod mal i dicitur, in se recognoscit.

Rex, audito ipsius archiepiscopi discessu, et quod eum sui aulici turpiloquio prosequerentur, rogatus a Roberto de Melidono Herefordiensi episcopo, vel forte ab aliquo alio edoctus, dum adhuc non perrexisset, misit, prsecipiens, ut post eum voce praeconia per vicos clamaretur, ne quis eum turpiloquio vel convicio lsederet; ne quis omnino ei, vel alicui suorum, in aliquo molestus esset articulo. Archiepiscopus ille sero inter suos, ubi solebat, comedit. Post coenam, milites ejus omnes qui aderant, reddito ei homanagio suo, et impetrata licentia, cum lacrymis ab eo discesserunt. Postea tres episcopos, Walterum Roffensem, capellanum suum, et duos quos ordinaverat, Robertum Herefordiensem, Rogerum Wigorniensem, misit regi archiepiscopus, quaerere ab eo licentiam et conductum praestari sibi in crastino recessuro. Regem illi invenerunt hilarem j sed distulit in crastinum mane eis respondere. Responso nunciorum accepto, archiepiscopus moram illam responsi regis aliquid sibi afferre periculi veritus est.

Nox erat: hora ad complendum dicta. Dixit sociis archiepiscopus, se velle in ecclesia vigilare. Unam quidem praeteritarum noctium in vigiliis et orationibus pernoctaverat in ecclesia cum clericis suis, facta afflictione, positisque genibus, ad invocationem uniuscujusque sancti vel sanctae in litania sua nominatae. Aiunt ei quidam de clericis suis, Volumus et nos vobiscum in ecclesia vigilare. Ille, Ne utique: nolo vos vexari. In noctis intempestse silentio tertius recessit, nullo clericorum, nullo militum suorum comitatus. Quod quum in crastino rex et omne concilium cognovissent, captato quid factu opus esset consilio, omnes possessiones Cantuariensis ecclesiae archiepiscopo in pace remanere dimisit, nullo ejus officialium amoto, quia in appellatione hinc inde erant. Et qui causas istas prosequerentur, ad dominum papam misit incontinenti post eum ad calces ejus, archiepiscopum Eboracensem et episcopos quatuor, Gilbertum Londoniensem, Hilarium Cicestrensem, Bartholomseum Exoniensem, Rogerum Wigorniensem, et comites duos et barones duos, clericos domesticos domus suse tres. Reliquum diei et concilii insumitur in tractando de copiis pedestribus in Walliam rebellem et regem Resim foederifragum ducendis: scribiturque a singulis personis, tam ecclesiasticis quam secularibus, in regis rogantis auxilium promissa bellatorum peditum multitudo. Solvitur concilium.

Translation
Extract from
William Holden Hutton (1899). S. Thomas of Canterbury. D. Nutt. pp. 70–

...   Afterwards on the same 
day the archbishop was sued for three hundred 
pounds received as Warden of Eye and Berkhampstead. 
The archbishop having previously refused to an- 
swer the suit, as. one that had not been cited 
therein, said, not as though in court, that he had sent 
this money and much more to repair the Tower of 
London and the aforesaid castles, as it was easy to 
see. The king said that it had not been done by his 
authority, and demanded that judgment should be 
given. Whereupon the archbishop agreed to restore 
the money for the king*s sake, as he was utterly 

-unwilling that a matter of money should cause any 
contention between them, and appointed certain 
laymen as sureties — the earl of Gloucester with Wil- 
liam of Eynesford and a third person, being his own 
men. 

On the third day the archbishop was interrogated 
by messengers [from the king] on the subject of 
a loan of 500 marks in connection with the war of 

' Toulouse, and another sum of 500 borrowed from a 
Jew on the king's security. He was next arraigned 
by action of wardship for all the proceeds of the arch- 
bishopric wl^ile vacant, and of other bishoprics and 
abbacies which had been vacant during his chancellor- 
ship : and he was ordered to give an account of all these 

to the king. The archbishop replied that for such a 
demand he was not summoned or prepared ; more- 
over if he were to be arraigned at the proper 
time and place he would be glad to render legal 
satisfaction to his lord the king. Therewith upon this 
the king demanded the safeguard of sureties. He 
replied that on this matter he ought to have the 
advice of his suffragans and his clergy The king 
kept to his point. He went away and from that day 
the barons and the knights no longer came to see 
him at his house, for they understood the mind of 
the king. 

On the fourth day came all the 
ecclesiastics to the lord archbishop's lodging. He 
took counsel on the matter with the bishops by 
themselves. By the advice of Henry, bishop of Win- 
chester, who had ordained him and who promised 
substantial aid, an endeavour was made to discover 
if the king could be pacified with money ; and the 
archbishop offered him two thousand marks. The 
king refused. There were certain of the clergy who 
told the archbishop that on account of his office he 
was bound to protect the Church, to give heed to 
his own person and dignity, and to honour the. king 
in all things saving the reverence due to God and , 
the Church's honour; and that there was nothing 
opposed to him which he need fear, since no crime 
or baseness could be laid to his charge. He had been 
given to the Church of Canterbury free from the 
chancellorship and every secular strife of the king 
as every vacant abbey would receive as abbat no 

monk of another house unless he was dismissed from 
all obligation to his own abbat. But in others who 
were nearer to the secret intents of the king there 
was a far different mind, and they said, " Our lord 
king is grievously angered against him. From cer- 
tain signs we interpret his desire to be that the arch- 
bishop should in everything, and by resigning the 
archbishopric, throw himself utterly on the king's 
mercy." And among them Hilary of Chichester, 
who was strongly on the king's side, said to him, 
" Would that you could cease to be archbishop and 
remain Thomas." And elsewhere he said concerning 
him, "Every plant which My Heavenly Father hath 
not planted shall be rooted up,"* as though he meant 
.that the king's will had procured his election. Of 
whom the archbishop afterwards in his exile said to 
one who was with him, "And he among my brethren 
obtained the place of Judas." And afterwards 
before the archbishop's recall and pacification, as 
though struck by God, he died. This same bishop 
of Chichester, speaking for himself and certain ac- 
complices, said, '* From the companionship and 
friendly life in which you lived with him as chan- 
cellor you must know the king better than we do. 
There is no doubt that he will be more easily con- 
vinced by you whether you contend with him or 
submit to him. In the chancery, both in peace and 
in war you did your duty honourably and laudabl)% 
and though not unenvied you now praise those who 
then envied you. Who could be your surety for so 
* Matthew xv. 13. 

great a reckoning, for such an uncertain sum ? The 
king is reported to have said that both of you could 
not remain in England together, <is king and arch- 
bishop. It were safer to resign everything at his 
mercy, lest perchance (which God forbid) he detain 
you, and without sureties, accused of embezzlement 
— on account of his money received when you were 
chancellor and receiver of revenue — or should lay his 
hand on you : whence to the Church would accrue 
great grief and to the king sore shame." And 
another said, ** Far be it from him that he should 
consult his own safety and dishonour the Church at 
Canterbury, which chose him for her own. Not so 
did any of his predecessors, though they in their 
days suffered persecution. . . ." 

And so different men gave different advice. 

The fifth day, which was Sunday, 
was entirely employed in consultations : scarce could 
one breathe at the time of refection. 

On the sixth day a sudden 
weakness seized him and he could not go to the 
Court. His reins trembled with cold and pain, and 
it was necessary to heat pillows and apply them to his 
side. When he heard thereof the king sent all his earls 
and very many barons to demand an answer, now that 
he had taken counsel, and demanding if he could offer 
security for the revenues of vacant churches received 
during his chancellorship and would stand to judg- 
ment in his Court thereon. The archbishop answered 
through the bishops that if his weakness allowed he 
would come to the Court on the morrow and do what 
he ought. 

 On the morrow he said mass 
in the morning at an altar of S. Stephen, the first 
martyr "For the princes sat."* 

Straightway spies of the king told him of the 
singing of this mass, maliciously explaining that 
the archbishop had celebrated that mass for himself, 
like another Stephen, against the king and his wicked 
persecutors. 

Afterwards he went to the Court. On the way he 
said to Alexander, his cross-bearer, who preceded 
him, " I had done better had I come in my vest- 
ments." For he had proposed to go with bare feet, 
vested, and bearing his cross, into the king*s pre- 
sence to beseech him for the peace of the Church. 
But his clerks turned him from his intention, and 
did not think that he would carry his cross. Having 
entered the hall of the castle, when he had dismounted 
from his horse, and took the cross which Alexander, 
the Welchman, had borne before him on the way, 
there met him at the gate of the hall the bishop of 
London, to whom Hugh of Nunant, archdeacon of 
Lisieux, who had come with the archbishop and was 
of his household, said : " Lord bishop of London, 
do you suffer htm to carry his cross ? " The bishop 
answered : ** Goodman, he always was a fool, and 
always will be." All made way for him. He entered 
* The archbishop celebrated what was called the mass of S. 
Stephen, and caused the introit <* Princes sat and spake against 
me " to be sung. He wore the pallium, as though it were a 
high festival. Gamier says he was told that this mass would 
keep him safe, and makes Foliot accuse him to the Pope of 
celebrating it " for sorcery." 


the council chamber and took his accustomed seat, 
the bishops by him, London nearest. Those who 
were present were all amazed, and the eyes of all 
were turned upon him. The bishop of London 
recommended him to give his cross to one of his 
clerks, and said that he looked as though he were 
prepared to disturb the whole realm. "You carry," 
said the bishop of London,  "the cross in your hands. 
If only the king should take his sword, behold a 
king bravely adorned and an archbishop in like sort.'' 
Said the archbishop : " If it were possible it should 
be mine to carry it always in my own hands ; but 
now I know what I do, for it is to preserve the peace 
of God for my own person and the Church of the 
English. Speak as you will. If you were here in 
my place you would feel otherwise. But if my lord 
the king should, as you say, now take the sword, that 
surely would not be a sign of peace." Perchance 
the archbishop remembered in how great a strait he 
had been at Clarendon, when, with tears, the king's 
envoys had come to him. 

Then all the bishops were called to the king and 
remained within for some time, and with them was 
Roger, archbishop of York, who had come last to 
the Court that he might be more conspicuous and 
might not seem to be of the king's counsel ; he had 
his own cross carried before him, [though it was] 
outside his province, as though dart threatening dart.* 
He had been forbidden by the lord pope, in letters 
despatched to him, to have his cross borne before 
* Lucann i. 7. 

him in the province o^ Canterbury ; but when he had 
received the prohibition he interposed an appeal on 
plea of false allegations of the archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and thereby considered himself safe. No 
wonder, if grief and groaning and contrition of heart 
beset the archbishop ; for he had heard that on that 
day either he should be made a prisoner by some sort of 
sentence, or if he should escape that he should be slain 
on his way out, as though without the king*s knowledge 
by a plot of wicked men against him. Meanwhile as 
they sat silent Herbert, his master in the Holy Scrip- 
ture, said privately to the archbishop — " My lord, if 
they lay impious hands upon you, you may straight- 
way lay on them the sentence of excommunication, 
so that the spirit may be saved in the day of the 
Lord." To whom William FitzStephen, who was 
sitting at the archbishop's feet, said in a little louder 
voice, so that the archbishop might hear " Be it far 
from him : not so did God's holy apostles and martyrs 
when they were seized : rather, if this should happen, 
should he pray for them and forgive them, and in his 
patience possess his own soul. For if it should 
happen to him to suffer for the cause of justice and 
the liberty of the Church, his soul would be in rest 
and his memory blessed. If he should put forth a 
sentence against them, it would seem to all men that 
for anger and impatience he had done what he could 
to avenge himself. And without doubt he would act 
contrary to canons : as wrote the blessed Gregory to 
Januarius the archbishop : " Thou showest thyself to 
meditate in no wise on. heavenly, but to have thy 

conversation in things of earth when thou usest the 
malediction of anathema to avenge an injury of thine 
own, which is forbidden by the sacred ordinances."* 
John Planeta when he heard this sought to restrain his 
tears. Likewise Ralf de Diceto, archdeacon of Lon- 
don,! wept much there that day. The archbishop 
hearing these things pondered them in his heart. 
After a little while, the same William FitzStephen, 
desiring to speak to the archbishop but forbidden by 
one of the king's marshals, who stood by with his 
rod, and said that no one should speak to him — after 
a short space, looking on the archbishop by raising 
his eyes and moving his lips he made a sign to him 
that he should look upon the Cross as his example, 
and on the image of the Crucified, and should pray. 
The archbishop understood the sign and did so, 
taking comfort from <jod. After many years, when 
the archbishop was an exile at S. Benedict's on the 
Loire, he met the said William then going to the 
pope, and reminded him of this among other memories 
of his sorrows. 

But, O Christian king, what doest thou } By reason 
of barony and holding in your lay court do you, a 
son, judge your father, a subject your archbishop, 
a sheep your shepherd, when in a lay court not the 
meanest clerk is bound to answer. You say, not so ; 
but as king I judge a baron. But it is a greater 
thing that you are a Christian, that you are God's 

* Canon Robertson gives relerences, Greg. Ep, ii. 49, and 
Gratian, iL causa xxiii. qu. 4, c. 27. 

t The historian. 

sheep, that you are God's son by adoption than that 
you are king. And in him it is greater that he is 
archbishop, that he is vicar of Jesus Christ, than that 
he is your baron. 

[FitzStephen then declares that the archbishop was not bound 
by reason of his property to stand to judgment in the king's 
court, since he was given free to the Church; and an "archbishop 
is subject to the judgment of the Pope alone." He then gives 
the argument of Robert of Melun, bishop of Hereford, that 
one who suffered in the cause of ecclesiastical liberty would be a 
martyr, since neither S. John Baptist nor the Maccabees died 
for the faith, and S. Anselm had truly shown that S. Alphege, 
who died rather than his flock should suffer exaction, was a 
martyr,] 

Then the bishops, as they talked within with the 
king, told him when they had come to the archbishop 
that day they had been reprimanded because they 
had with the barons dealt with -him in hostile manner 
and had judged him with unjust severity and in un- 
heard-of fashion, since for a single absence he should 
not have been judged as contumacious, nor should 
they have condemned him at the king's mercy in 
penalty of iall his moveables. For in this sort should 
the Church of Canterbury be destroyed, if the king 
should unmercifully be hardened against him, and a 
like hurtful sentence in a like case might fall upon 
the bishops and barons themselves. But (he said) 
that it was customary in each suit that a certain fixed 
sum of money should be paid by those condemned 
to a pecuniary penalty at the king's mercy. In 
London it was fixed at loo shillings. In Kent, which 
being nearer the sea has to keep off pirates from the 

English coast and lays claim to the first blow in war 
against foreign foes, since the burden is greater, 
greater is the freedom, and there 40 shillings are 
fixed for those in such sort condemned. And he, 
having his house and see in Kent, ought to have 
been judged and fined by the law of Kent. And 
the bishops also said that on that day, within tea 
days of the sentence given, he had appealed against 
them to the Pope, and that he had forbidden them 
by authority of the lord Pope to judge him in future 
on any secular charge. Then the king was wrath, 
and sent to him his earls and barons many to ask if 
he had indeed made this appeal and prohibition — 
since he was his liege man and was bound to him 
both by the common oath and by the special stipu- 
lation at Clarendon in word of truth that he would 
preserve the royal dignities in good faith and without 
guile, and lawfully. Among the which was one that 
the bishops should take part in all his trials, save 
only in sentence of blood. To ask him also if he 
would give pledges and render account of his chan- 
cellorship and stand therein to the judgment of the 
king's court. Whereat he, gazing upon the image 
of the Crucified, firm in mind and in countenance, 
and remaining seated that he might preserve the 
dignity of archbishop, made speech after this manner, 
clearly and smoothly, and halted not in one word. 

" Men and brethren, — Such and barons of my 
lord king, I am indeed bound to the king our liege 
lord by homage, fealty, and oath, but more especially 
hath the priestly oath justice and equity as its fellows. 


In honour and fealty to the king am I bound in 
subjection, both devoted and due, for God's sake, to 
pay obedience in all things, saving my obedience to 
God and ecclesiastical dignity and the archiepiscopal 
character, declining this suit since I had summons 
neither to render accounts nor for any other cause 
save only for the cause of John ; neither am I bound 
answer or to hear sentence in the cause of an- 
other. I confess and remember that I received many 
charges and dignities from my lord king, in the which 
served I faithfully both in this land and beyond sea, and 
also having spent all my own revenues in his service 
with joy, I became bound, on his behalf, debtor for 
much money And when, by divine permission and 
the favour of my lord king, I was elected archbishop 
and should be consecrated, I was dismissed exempt 
by the king before my consecration, and given free 
to the Church of Canterbury, quit and loosed from 
every secular claim of the king, although now, in 
anger, he disavows it, which many of you well know, 
and all the ecclesiastics of the realm. And you who 
know the worth of this I pray, beseech, and conjure 
that you make it plain to the king, against whom, it 
were not safe, even if it were allowed, to produce 
witnesses ; nor, indeed, is there need, for I will 
not litigate. After my consecration I studied to 
support the honour and responsibility which I had 
assumed with all my strength, and to be of service 
to the Church of God over which I was placed, 
wherein it is not given me to proceed, and, owing 
to the blasts of adversity, I cannot be useful. I 

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THE ARCHBISHOP'S PROTEST. 8 1 

impute it not to my lord king nor to any other, but 
chiefly to my own sins. God is able to give increase 
of grace to whom and when He will. 

I cannot give sureties for rendering an account. 
I have already bound all the bishops and my friends 
who could help; neither ought I to be compelled 
thereto, for it has not been so adjudged. Nor am I 
in court concerning th« account, for I was not sum- 
moned for that cause, but was cited on another suit, 
that of John the marshal. As to my prohibition and 
appeal of the bishops to-day I remember indeed that 
I said to my brethren the bishops that they had con- 
demned me for a single absence, and no contumacy, 
with more severity than justice, and contrary to custom 
and to precedent. Wherefore I have appealed them, 
and forbidden that, while this appeal is pending, 
they should again judge me on any secular complaint 
of the time before I was archbishop ; and I still 
appeal, and I place my person and the Church of 
Canterbury under the protection of God and the loid 
Pope." He ended ; and some of the barons returned 
in silence to the king, pondering on his words. 

[W. FitzStephen then states that others spoke loudly, to 
alarm the archbishop, of the vengeance of past kings on eccle- 
siastics. " King William, who subdued England, knew how to 
tame his clerks.'' Odo of Bayeux and Stigand felt his hand; 
and Geoffrey of Anjou, the king's father, had fearfully punished 
Amulf of Seez and many of his clergy.] 

The king when he received the answer of the arch- 
bishop was in with the bishops ordering and conjuring ' 
them by their homage and fealty due and sworn to ' 

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83 THB PRIMATE AND THE BISHOPS. 

him that they would give sentence concerning the 
I archbishop together with the barons. They began 
to excuse themselves on account of the archbishop*s 
.prohibition. The king was not satisfied, asserting 
that his simple prohibition could not bind contrary to 
what had been decreed and sworn at Clarendon. 
They urged on the other hand that the archbishop 
might lay a heavy hand on them if they did not obey 
his appeal and prohibition ; and besought that they 
Hiight for the good of the king and kingdom agree 
to the prohibition. When at length the king was 
persuaded, the bishops returned to the archbishop. 
Robert of Lincoln was weeping and others could 
scarce restrain their tears. Then the bishop of Chi- 
chester spoke thus : '^ Lord archbishop, saving your 
grace, we have whereof we may greatly complain of 
you : greatly have you hurt us your bishops : you 
have shut us up in a trap by this prohibition, as 
though you had put us betwixt hammer and anvil ; 
for if we do not obey we are ensnared in the bonds 
of disobedience, if we obey in those of the law and 
of the king's anger. For recently when we were 
assembled w'th you at Clarendon we were required 
of the king to observe his royal dignities ; and lest 
perchance we should be in doubt he showed to us in 
writing the securities of which he spoke. At length 
we gave assent and promised to observe them ; you 
in the first place and we your suffragans afterwards by 
your command. When beyond this the king required 
an oath of us and the impression of our seals, we 
^d that our priestly oath to observe his dignities in 

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THE PRIMATE AND THE BISHOPS. 83 

good faith without guile and lawfully, ought to be 
enough. The king was persuaded and agreed. To 
this you now compel us to go contrary ; forbidding 
us — as he demands — to take part in the trial. From 
this grievance and lest you should add anything 
further to our hurts, we appeal to the lord pope, and 
for the present obey your prohibition." 

The archbishop answered : " What you say I hear, ' 
and if God will I will meet your appeal. But at] 
Clarendon nothing was yielded by me or by you 
through me, except ' saving the honour of the ' 
Church.' As you yourselves say we retained there ' 
these three conclusions, and in good faiih, without guile, 
and lawfully, whereby the dignities are saved to our 
churches since we have them by papal law.* For 
what is contrary to the faith we owe to the Church 
and the laws of God cannot be observed * in good 
faith and lawfully ' ; nor can the dignity of a king 
consist in destroying the liberty of the Church which 
he has sworn to defend. Moreover these same 
articles which you call the royal dignities the lord 
king has sent to the Pope to be confirmed, and they 
have been sent back rather condemned than approved. 
He has given us an example for our learning, that, 
we should also do likewise, being ready with the 
Roman Church to receive what he receives and reject 
what he rejects. And further, if we fell at Clarendon 
(for the flesh is weak) we ought to resume our courage 
and strive in the strength of the Holy Spirit against 
the old enemy. If under covenant on the word of 

• E jure pontificio, i.e Decretals. 

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84 "THE BARONS' SENTEi^CE. 

truth we there yielded or swore what was unjust you 
know that by no law are we bound to what is un- 
lawful." 
I Then the bishops returned to the king, and being 

â–  excused by him for judging the archbishop, they sat 

â–  down apart from the barons ; but none the less did 
\the king demand sentence from the earls and barons. 

There were called up also certain sheriffs and barons 
of the second rank, men of age, to take part in the 
judgment. After a little delay the barons returned 
to the archbishop. Robert, earl of Leicester, who 
in age and dignity stood chief, endeavoured to make 
certain others to pronounce sentence, but when they 
refused began to speak of the business at Clarendon 
in order, and said to the archbishop that he must 
hear the sentence. But the archbishop would hear 
no more, and said : ** What is this that you would 
do ? Have you come to judge me ? Then ought 
you not. Judgment is a sentence given after trial. 
For no suit was I summoned hither save only 
at the suit of John, who has not met me in the 

{ suit. With respect to this you cannot give sentence. 

) I am your father; you are nobles of the palace,- 
lay powers, secular persons. I will not hear your 
sentence." The nobles withdrew. After a short 
space the archbishop arose, and bearing his cross 
approached the door, which had all day been very 
strictly secured, but opened to him as though of 
itself. A slanderer following him called out as he 
went forth that he was a perjurer, another that he 
fled like a traitor and bore the king's sentence with 

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THE END OF THE COXJNCIL, 85 

him. In the hall, which was full of servants, he 
stumbled over a bundle of faggots but did not fall. 
He came to the gate, where his horses were. Mount- 
ing his horse he took with him Master Herbert, who 
could not obtain his own so quickly on account of 
the crowd, [and rode to] the monastery of S. Andrew. 
O how great was the martyrdom in spirit which he 
bore that day, but he returned the happier from the 
presence of the council, since he was deemed worthy 
there to suffer shame for the Name of Jesus. 

[This account differs in certain points from that given by 
other biographers. William of Canterbury (MatericUs^ i., p. 39) 
mentions Ranulf de Broc and earl Hamelin, illegitimate brother 
of the king, as those who called after the archbishop. William 
also states that Becket replied angrily, .calling Hamelin "varlet 
and bastard," and reminding Ranulf that one of his kinsmen 
had been hanged. Gamier, however, states that " the holy man 
spoke not a word " ; and Grim, that ** he answered no man 
anything." Herbert (Materials^ iii., p. 310) says : " He turned 
a stem countenance on those who were reproaching him, and 
answered that if his priesthood did not prevent him he would 
defend himself against them in arms from their charges of per- 
jury and treason. And so we departed from the council : the 
disciple who bears witness of these things saw them and now 
writes this. He was at that moment the only follower the 
archbishop had, as he bore his cross from the inner room, till we 
reached the hall." Roger of Pontigny gi'^s the archbishop's 
reply as "If I were a knight mine own hands should prove thee 
false." 

On his way back to the monastery Herbert of Bosham 
(Materials J iii., 310) states that he could scarce control his horse 
and cany his cross for the multitude that thronged him and 
pressed for his blessing.- He called the crowd into the refectory 
and sate clieecfiiUy at the table for some time. A passage was 


Other Translations


Michael Staunton (7 December 2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. Manchester University Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6

An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket
by William Fitzstephen
Trans by  Leo T. Gourde 

David Charles Douglas (1981). English Historical Documents. Oxford University Press
EHD #129  774-
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