Roger (of Wendover) (1841). Rogeri de Wendover Chronica, sive Flores historiarum,. Sumptibus Societatis. pp. 298–.
Facta est recognitio consuetudinum Angliae apud Clarendunam
Anno Domini MCLXIV, in praesentia regis Henrici apud Clarendunam octavo kalendas Februarii, praesidente Johanne de Oxonia de mandato ipsius regis, praesentibus etiam archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, prioribus comitibus, baronibus et proceribus regni, facta est recognitio, sive recordatio, cujusdam partis consuetudinum et libertatum antecessorum suorum, regis videlicet Henrici avi sui et aliorum, quae observari debebant in regno ab omnibus et teneri, propter dissensiones et discordias saepe emergentes inter clerum et justiciarios domini regis et magnatum regni; harum vero consuetudinum recognitarum quaedam pars in sedecim capitulis subsequentibus continetur.
De advocatione et praesentatione ecclesiarum si controversia emerserit inter laicos et clericos, inter clericos, in curia domini regis [tractetur terminetur.
Ecclesiae de feodo domini regis] non possunt in perpetuum dari absque concessione ipsius.
Cleri accusati de quacunque re, summoniti a justiciario regis, veniant in curiam ipsius re ibidem de hoc, unde videbitur curiae regis, quod ibi sit respondendum; et in curia ecclesiatica unde videbitur quod ibi sit respondendum; ita quod regis justiciarius mittet in curiam sanctae ecclesiae ad videndum, quomodo res ibi tractabitur. Et si clericus convictus vel confessus fuerit, non debet eum de caetero ecclesia tueri.
Archiepiscopis episcopis et claris personis regni, non licet exire a regno absque licentia domini regis; et si exierint, si regi placuerit, securum eum facient quod nec in eundo nec in redeundo vel moram faciendo perquirent malum sive damnum domino regi vel regno.
Excommunicati non debent dare vadium ad remanens nec praestare juramentum, sed tantum vadium et plegium standi judicio ecclesiae ubi absolvuntur.
Laici non debent accusari, nisi per certos et legitimos accusatores et testes in praesentia episcopi, ita quod archidiaconus non perdat jus suum nec quicquam quod inde habere debeat; et si tales fuerint, qui culpantur, quod non velit vel non audeat aliquis accusare eos, vicecomes requisitus ab episcopo faciat jurare duodecim legales homines de visneto sive de villa coram episcopo, quod veritatem secundum conscientiam suam manifestabunt.
Nullus qui de rege tenet in capite, nec aliquis dominicorum ministrorum ejus, excommunicetur, nec alicujus eorum terrae sub interdicto ponantur, nisi prius dominus rex, si in regno fuerit conveniatur vel justiciarius ejus, si fuerit extra regnum, ut rectum de eo faciat; et ita ut quod pertinebit ad regis curiam ibi terminetur et de eo quod spectat ad curiam ecclesiasticam ad eandem mittatur ut ibidem terminetur.
De appellationibus si emerserint, ab archidiacono debent procedere ad episcopum, ab episcopo ad archiepiscopum, et, si archiepiscopus defuerit in justitia exhibenda, ad dominum regem perveniendum est postremo, ut praecepto ipsius in curia archiepiscopi controversia terminetur, ita quod non debet ultra procedere absque assensu domini regis.
Si calumnia emerserit inter clericum et laicum, vel e converso, de ullo tenemento quod clericus velit ad eleemosynam trahere, vel laicus ad laicum feodum, per recognitionem duodecim legalium hominum juxta capitalis justi ciarii regis considerationem terminabitur, utrum
tenementum sit pertinens ad eleemosynam, sive ad laicum feodum, coram justiciario regis; et si recognitum fuerit ad eleemosynam pertinere placitum erit in curia ecclesiastica; si vero ad laicum feodum, nisi ambo tenementum de episcopo eodem vel barone advocaverint, erit placitum in curia regis; sed, si utrique advocaverint de feodo illo eundem episcopum vel baronem, erit placitum in curia ipsius ita quod propter factam recognitionem saisinam non amittat, qui prius fuerat saisitus.
[Qui] de civitate vel castello vel burgo vel dominico manerio regis fuerit; si ab archidiacono vel episcopo super aliquo delicto citatus fuerit, unde debeat eis respondere, et ad citationes eorum noluerit satisfacere, bene licet eis sub interdicto ponere eum, sed non debent ipsum excommunicare priusquam capitalis minister regis villae illius conveniatur, ut justiciet eum ad satisfactionem venire; et si minister regis inde defecerit, erit in misericordia regis et exinde poterit episcopus ipsum accusatum ecclesiastica justitia coercere.
Archiepiscopi episcopi et universae personae regni, qui de rege tenent in capite, habeant possessiones suas de rege sicut baroniam, et inde respondeant justiciariis et ministris regis, et sequantur et faciant omnes consuetudines regias et sicut caeteri barones debent interesse judiciis curiae regis cum baronibus quousque perveniatur ad diminutionem membrorum vel ad mortem.
Cum vacaverit archiepiscopatus, vel episcopatus, vel abbatia, vel prioratus in dominio regis, debet esse in manu ipsius, et inde percipiet omnes redditus et exitus sicut dominicos redditus suos. Et cum ventum fuerit ad consulendum ecclesiam debet, dominus rex mandare potiores personas ecclesiae, [et] in capella ipsius regis debet fieri electio assensu, ipsius regis et consilio personarum, regni quas ad haec faciendum advocaverit; et ibidem faciet electus homagium et fidelitatem regi, sicut ligio domino suo, de vita sua et membris et de honore terreno, salvo ordine suo, priusquam consecretur.
Si quisquam de proceribus regni disfortiaverit archiepiscopo, vel episcopo, vel archidiacono de se suisve justitiam exhibere, dominus rex debet eos justiciare; et si forte aliquis disfortiaret domino regi rectitudinem suam, archiepiscopi episcopi et archidiaconi debent eum justiciare, ut regi satisfaciat.
Catalla eorum, qui sunt in forisfacto regis non detineat ecclesia vel cemeterium contra justiciarios regis, quia ipsius regis sunt sive in ecclesiis sive extra fuerint inventa.
Placita de debitis, quae fide interposita debentur vel absque interpositione fidei sint in justitia regis.
Filii rusticorum non debent ordinari absque assensu domini de cujus terra nati dignoscuntur.
Hanc recognitionem sive recordationem de consuetudinibus et libertatibus iniquis et dignita tibus Deo detestabilibus, archiepiscopi, episcopi, abbates, priores, clerus, cum comitibus et baronibus ac proceribus cunctis, juraverunt et firmiter in verbo veritatis promiserunt viva voce se tenendas et observandas domino regi et haere dibus suis bona fide et absque malo ingenio in perpetuum.
J. A. Giles (1846). The Life and Letters of Thomas à Becket: Now First Gathered from the Contemporary Historians. Appendix IV: Council of Clarendon: Whittaker. pp. 390–.
How a recognition of the customs of England was made at Clarendon,
A . D . 1164. In the presence of king Henry, at Clarendon,
on the 25th of January, John of Oxford, according to the
king's request, presiding, in the presence, also, of the arch
bishops, bishops, abbats, priors, earls, barons, and nobles of
the kingdom, was made a recognition or inquisition, con
cerning certain customs and liberties of theking's predecessors,
to wit, Henry, his grandfather, and others, which ought to
be observed and held by all in the kingdom, on account of
the dissensions and discords which often arise between the
clergy and justices of our lord the king and the nobles of
the kingdom. O f these customs then recognised a portion is
contained in the sixteen chapters here following.
I. Of the advowson and presentation to churches : if any dispute shall
arise between laics, or between clerks and laics, or between clerks, let it be
tried and decided in the court of our lord the king.
II. Churches of the king's fee shall not be given in perpetuity without
his consent and licence.
I I I. Clerks accused of any crime, shall be summoned by the king's
justice into the king's court, to answer there for whatever the king's court
shall determine they ought to answer there, and in the ecclesiastical court,
for whatever it shall be determined that they ought to answer there ; yet
so that the king's justice shall send into the court of holy church to see
in what way the matter shall there be handled; and if the clerk shall
confess or be convicted, the church for the future shall not protect him.
I V. No archbishop, bishop, or other exalted person, shall leave the
kingdom without the king's licence; and if they wish to leave it, the king
shall be empowered, if he pleases, to take security from them, that they
will do no harm to the king or kingdom, either in going, or remaining, or
V. Persons excommunicated are not to give bail, ad remanent,
nor to make oath, but only to give bail and pledge that they will stand by
the judgment of the church where they are absolved.
V I. Laics shall not be accused, save by certain legal accusers and
witnesses in presence of the bishop, so that the archdeacon may not lose
his rights, or anything which accrues to him therefrom. And if those
who are arraigned are such as no one is willing or dares to accuse them, the
sheriff on demand from the bishop shall cause twelve loyal men of the
village to swear before the bishop that they will declare the truth in that
matter according to their conscience.
V I I. No one who holds of the king in chief, nor any of his domestic
servants, shall be excommunicated, nor their lands be put under an interdict,
until the king shall be consulted, if he is in the kingdom ; or, if he is abroad,
his justiciary ; that he may do what is right in that matter ; and so that
whatever belongs to the king's court may therein be settled, and the s ime
on the other hand of the ecclesiastical court.
VIII. Appeals, if they arise, must be made from the archdeacon to the
bishop, and from the bishop to the archbishop ; and if the archbishop shall
fail in administering justice, the parties shall come before our lord the king,
that by his precept the controversy may be terminated in the archbishop's
court, so that it may not proceed further without the consent of our lord
I X . If a dispute shall arise between a clerk and a laic, or between a
laic and a clerk, about a tenement, which the clerk wishes to claim as ele
emosynary, but the laic claims as lay fee, it shall be settled by the declara
tion of twelve loyal men, through the agency of the king's capital justice,
whether the tenement is eleemosynary or lay fee, in presence of the king's
justice. And if it shall be declared that it is eleemosynary, it shall be
pleaded in the ecclesiastical court ; but if a lay-fee, unless both shall claim
the tenement of the same bishop or baron, it shall be pleaded in the king's
court ; but if both shall claim of that fee from the same bishop or baron,
it shall be pleaded in his court, yet so that the declaration above-named
shall- not deprive of seizing him who before was seized, until he shall be di
vested by the pleadings.
X . If any man belonging to a city, castle, borough, or king's royal manor,
shall be summoned by the archdeacon or bishop to answer for a crime, and
shall not comply with the summons, it shall be lawful to place him under
an interdict, but not to excommunicate him, until the king's principal
officer of that place be informed thereof that he may justify his appearing
to the summons ; and if the king's officer shall fail in that matter, he shall
be at the king's mercy, and the bishop shall forthwith coerce the party ac
cused with ecclesiastical discipline.
X I. The archbishops, bishops, and all other persons of the kingdom who
hold of the king in chief, shall hold their possessions of the king as barony,
and answer for the same to the king's justices and officers, and follow and
observe all the king's customs and rectitudes, like other barons, until the
judgment is carried to the loss of members or death.
X I I. When an archbishopric, bishopric, abbacy, or priory of the king's
domain shall be vacant, it shall be in his hand, and he ehall receive from it
all the revenues and proceeds, as of domain. And when the time shall
come for providing for that church, our lord the king shall recommend the
best persons to that church, and the election shall be made in the king's
chapel, with the king's consent, and the advice of the person of the king
dom whom he shall have summoned for that purpose. And the person
elected shall there do homage and fealty to our lord the king, as to his liege
lord, of life and limb, and of his earthly honours saving his orders before
he is consecrated.
X I I I. If any of the king's nobles shall have refused to render justice to
an archbishop, or bishop, or archdeacon, for himself or any of his men, our
lord the king shall justise them. And if by chance any one shall have
deforced our lord the king of his rights, the archbishops, bishops, or arch
deacons shall justise him that he may render satisfaction to the king.
X I V . The cattle of those who are in forfeiture to the king shall not be
detained by the church or the cemetery, in opposition to the king's justice ;
for they belong to the king, whether they are found in the church or with
X V . Pleas for debts which are due, whether with the interposition of a
pledge of faith or not, belong to the king's court.
X V I. The sons of rustics shall not be ordained without the consent of
their lord, in whose land they are known to have been born.
This recognition or inquisition concerning bad customs,
liberties, and dignities detestable to Almighty God, was
sworn to by the archbishop, bishops, abbats, priors, and
clergy, besides all the earls, barons, and nobles, who expressly
promised, by word of mouth, and in the words of truth, that
they would keep and observe them to our lord the king and
his heirs, in good faith and without mental reservation, for