Wednesday, 18 September 2013

Archdeacon of Canterbury

Archdeacons

The archdeacon acted as the bishop's deputy and representative and had the job of supervising parish churches in the diocese. if the bishop was the episcopus [Overseer], the the archdeacon was the osculus episcopi  [Eye of the Bishop].

Synod of Windsor, Whitsuntide 1070

An ecclesiastical council held at Windsor in 1070 ordered "that bishops should appoint archdeacons in their churches".

David Charles Douglas (1964). William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England. University of California Press. pp. 330–. ISBN 978-0-520-00350-7.
...
A notable feature of this was, for example, the emergence at this time in England, as in pre-Conquest Normandy, of the archdeacon as the bishop's regular agent in all matters of discipline and justice. Within six years of the battle of Hastings a council at Winchester [Windsor?] ordered all bishops to appoint archdeacons, and in view of the earlier Norman development the command is significant. It marked a change. Archdeacons were not unknown in England during the reign of Edward the Confessor,  but references to them are rare; and it was not until after the Norman conquest that they became, in England as previously in Normandy, a normal part of the administrative hierarchy of the Church. Here, therefore, may be seen another illustration of the importation of Norman organization into England, and other changes in the conduct of ecclesiastical justice followed naturally as a consequence of the same tendency.
...

Ordericus Vitalis (1969). The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–. ISBN 978-0-19-822204-0

Rosamond McKitterick (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History: pts. 1-2. c. 1024-c. 1198. Cambridge University Press. pp. 251–. ISBN 978-0-521-41410-4.


David Wilkins (1737). Concilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae ab a. D. 446 ad a. D. 1717. Accedunt constitutiones et alia ad historiam ecclesiae spectantia, a Davide Wilkins collecta. R. Gosling. pp. 390–.

Diana Greenway; Christopher Holdsworth; Jane Sayers (18 July 2002). "Christopher Brooke: The Archdeacon and the Norman Conquest". Tradition and Change: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Chibnall Presented by Her Friends on the Occasion of Her Seventieth Birthday. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-521-52499-5.

Becket as Archdeacon

In 1154 Becket was made archdeacon of Canterbury by archbishop Theobald. His ecclesiastical benefices included prebends at Lincoln Cathedral and St Paul's Cathedral, and the office of Provost of Beverley. His competence at his work directly led to Theobald commending him to king Henry II for the vacant post of chancellor. Becket was appointed to this post in January 1155.

Bury, J.B. (2011-01-27). The Cambridge Medieval History volumes 1-5 (Kindle Locations 61164-61166). Plantagenet Publishing. Kindle Edition. 

L. B. Radford (1894), Thomas of London before his Consecration (Cambridge)
Chapter 2: Servant of Theobald: pp. 27-56.


Urry William. The Normans in Canterbury. In: Annales de Normandie, 8e année n°2, 1958. pp. 119-138.

John Morris (1859). The life and martyrdom of saint Thomas Becket archb. of Canterbury. Longman, Brown. pp. 19–.

Henry Hart Milman (1860). Life of Thomas à Becket. Sheldon & company. pp. 19–20.

Richard Eales; Richard Sharpe (1 January 1995). Canterbury and the Norman Conquest: Churches, Saints and Scholars, 1066-1109. Continuum. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-1-85285-068-5.

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, archbishop of Canterbury: A biography. J. Murray. pp. 23–.

Hutton (1899) Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury

Hutton (1910) Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury

Translation, extract from
Gourde, Leo T. (1943), "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket by William Fitzstephen". p 23-4

...
he was presented by John, the Bishop of worcester, to
the Church of St. Mary-le-Strand. Later he was given the
Church of Otford as a gift from the Archbishop. Then he held
a prebendal stall in the Church of St. Paul in London and
another in Lincoln. Having obtained leave of his Archbishop,
he studied law at Bologna for a year, and afterwards at Auxerre.
After the lapse of time and increase of merit, the Archbishop
thought it well to ordain Thomas deacon and appoint him
Archdeacon of the Church of Canterbury. This office, next
to the bishoprics and abbacies, was the highest in the Church
of England and brought him a hundred pounds of silver.
...

Edward Hasted (1799).
The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 1 (pp. 260-265).
General history - Ecclesiastical government

Edward Hasted (1801).
The archdeaconry of Canterbury: Origins.
The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 12: pp. 550-556.

Edward Hasted (1801).
Archdeacons of Canterbury.
The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 12: pp. 556-595.
Diana E. Greenway.
Archdeacons: Canterbury.
Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2: Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces) (1971): pp. 12-15.

L. B. Radford (1894), Thomas of London before his Consecration (Cambridge)
Chapter 2: Servant of Theobald: pp. 27-56.



Becket consecrated as archbishop

Bury, J.B. The Cambridge Medieval History volumes 1-5
...
Once Becket was consecrated, he tried to be the perfect archbishop. He resigned the chancellorship, though he did not give up the archdeaconry of Canterbury until the king forced him to do so. He played the ascetic as perfectly as he had played the courtier. There was no insincerity in this changed way of life.
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