Tuesday, 17 September 2013

Conflict of Investitures

References

Brian Tierney (1964). The Crisis of Church and State, 1050-1300. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-6701-2.
Synod of the Lateran, 1059
Called a Lateran Synod because it was convened at the Lateran palace at Rome in 1059 by Pope Nicholas II. Outcome of the Council:
1) Consolidation of the cardinals into a body overseen by the Pope. (The College of Cardinals)
2) Standardisation of the process by which popes were to be elected.
3) Condemnation of the sin of simony, the purchase with money of clerical posts.

Gordon S. Brown (2003). The Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily. McFarland. pp. 91–
Horst Fuhrmann (1986). Germany in the High Middle Ages, C. 1050-1200. Cambridge University Press. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-521-31980-5.
Anura Guruge (16 February 2010). The Next Pope. Anura Guruge. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2.

Conflict of Investitures

Wikipedia Investiture Controversy

Concordat of London, 1107

Wikipedia Concordat of Worms, 1122

Usna.edu.
Compiled by Dr. Richard Abels
Papacy and Empire, 955-1356

Council of Reims [Rheims], 1049

Constitutions of Clarendon: The Lateran Councils of the 12th Century.

Constitutions of Clarendon: Papal Supremacy.

Wikipedia Pope Nicholas II

Weber, N. (1911). Pope Nicholas II. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Alexander II
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_II

Wikipedia Pope Gregory VII

Oestereich, T.(1909).Pope St. Gregory VII. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Victor III

Wikipedia Pope Urban II

Wikipedia Pope Paschal II

Loughlin, J.(1911). Pope Paschal II. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Callixtus II

MacCaffrey, J.(1908). Pope Callistus II. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.


Wikipedia Pope Adrian IV

Ua Clerigh, A.(1907).Pope Adrian IV. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Alexander III

Loughlin, J.(1907). Pope Alexander III. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

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