Tuesday, 17 September 2013

Conflict of Investitures

Rosamond McKitterick; David Edward Luscombe; Paul Fouracre (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume 4 Part I. Chapter 5 P. Landau Development of Law: Cambridge University Press. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-0-521-41410-4.

An influential recent study of European legal history by the American scholar Harold Berman sees the foundations of the ‘western legal tradition’ in a papally inspired ‘revolution’ between 1075 and 1122, namely the transformation of legal systems inspired by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85). This development has traditionally been known as the ‘Gregorian reform’, but the term does not do justice to its revolutionary character. Although Berman’s interpretation of eleventh-century legal history may be somewhat overstated, it is scarcely possible to deny that a new direction, ‘un tournant dans l’histoire du droit’, was taken in the closing decades of the eleventh century, marking a clear historical transition in the development of law. This new direction can be linked thematically to the great ideological struggle between pope and emperor, the Investiture Contest. Formally, it could be seen as a definitive espousal of written forms of law and a renunciation of previous approaches which depended extensively on the continual adaptation of oral traditions. That earlier legal culture is hard to relate to concepts based on modern forms of law.

Harold J. Berman (June 2009). Law and Revolution, the Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02085-6.

Harold J. Berman (2000)
The Western Legal Tradition in a Millennial Perspective: Past and Future
Louisiana Law Review Volume 60 Number 3 Spring 2000


Uta-Renate Blumenthal (2010). The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century. University of Pennsylvania Press. . ISBN 0-8122-0016-0.

Brian Tierney (1964). The Crisis of Church and State, 1050-1300. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-6701-2.

Norman Frank Cantor (2015). Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture in England, 1089-1135. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-7699-0.
Synod of the Lateran, 1059
Called a Lateran Synod because it was convened at the Lateran palace at Rome in 1059 by Pope Nicholas II. Outcome of the Council:
1) Consolidation of the cardinals into a body overseen by the Pope. (The College of Cardinals)
2) Standardisation of the process by which popes were to be elected.
3) Condemnation of the sin of simony, the purchase with money of clerical posts.

Gordon S. Brown (2003). The Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily. McFarland. pp. 91–
Horst Fuhrmann (1986). Germany in the High Middle Ages, C. 1050-1200. Cambridge University Press. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-521-31980-5.
Anura Guruge (16 February 2010). The Next Pope. Anura Guruge. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2.

Conflict of Investitures

Wikipedia Investiture Controversy

Concordat of London, 1107

Wikipedia Concordat of Worms, 1122

Compiled by Dr. Richard Abels
Papacy and Empire, 955-1356

Council of Reims [Rheims], 1049

Constitutions of Clarendon: The Lateran Councils of the 12th Century.

Constitutions of Clarendon: Papal Supremacy.

Wikipedia Pope Nicholas II

Weber, N. (1911). Pope Nicholas II. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Alexander II

Wikipedia Pope Gregory VII

Oestereich, T.(1909).Pope St. Gregory VII. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Victor III

Wikipedia Pope Urban II

Wikipedia Pope Paschal II

Loughlin, J.(1911). Pope Paschal II. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Callixtus II

MacCaffrey, J.(1908). Pope Callistus II. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Adrian IV

Ua Clerigh, A.(1907).Pope Adrian IV. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Wikipedia Pope Alexander III

Loughlin, J.(1907). Pope Alexander III. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.New York: Robert Appleton Company.

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