Saturday, 14 September 2013

Medieval Cathedrals of England

The Church in England as an institution is rather unique in Europe. Its cathedrals tended to be organised as monasteries rather than as secular cathedrals with  chapters of canons. The Church in England was much reorganised after the Conquest. Many of the seats of bishops were moved to centres of a higher population.

Dorchester-upon-Thames > Lincoln [1072]
Selsey > Chichester [1075]
Sherborne > Old Sarum [Salisbury] [1078]
Elmham > Norwich [1094]


Many of the new Norman lords founded new churches to expiate their sins. Indeed the Conquest had been fought with the Church in Rome on the side of William. Many new ecclesiastical  foundations had their parent in Normandy or France. Many of these new abbeys, priories and the cathedrals were given Norman or French bishops, abbots or priors who were quite efficient at recovering or retaining the properties of their institutions..

Archbishop Lanfranc drew up the rules which governed the life of the monk in monasatic cathedrals. 

Secular Cathedrals

These are those which were ruled by secular canons headed by a dean .

Before the Reformation, the following nine English cathedrals were staffed by ‘secular’ clergy (i.e. clergy who were not members of religious orders): Chichester, Exeter, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, London (St Paul’s), Salisbury, Wells, York. The canons of these Old Foundation cathedrals were also prebendaries – i.e. their income came from individual endowments (‘prebends’), consisting of lands and the right to collect rents, fees and tithes from parishes. The number of prebends ranged from 22 (Wells) to 58 (Lincoln).

The chief dignitaries in each cathedral – the quattuor personae  the 4 ‘cornerstones’ of their spiritual and material fabric – were the dean, the precentor (who ranked next after the dean, the chancellor and the treasurer. Each of these commonly had a deputy (respectively, the sub-dean, the succentor, the vice-chancellor and the sacrist).

Secular cathedral government was new to England. William the Conqueror's curial bishop, St. Osmund, left a written constitution for his cathedral of Salisbury [Old Sarum]. This document provided the model for the 'foursquare' constitution of the English secular cathedrals of the Old Foundation. It was based on the four great dignitaries of a secular cathedral: dean, precentor, chancellor, and treasurer, each of whom had their stalls at the four corners of the choir.

Archdeacons were sometimes also prebendaries and commonly also had stalls in choir next to those of the great officers. A small number of the prebendaries (varying from four to eight, but generally six or seven) were designated as residentiary canons and required to reside at the cathedral for part of the year; these had a share in the common funds of the cathedral in addition to their individual prebends.

It is statistically significant that the three (arch)bishops who opposed Becket, Roger Pont d'Eveque [York], Gilbert Foliot [London], Joscelin [Salisbury] were  (arch)bishops of secular cathedrals; and were possible more beholden for their positions to the king.

Cathedral Priories

These are those which were ruled by monastic orders headed by a prior.

The other ten pre-Reformation English cathedrals were monastic foundations  - cathedral priories. Nine of these were Benedictine priories and one (Carlisle ) was a priory of Augustinian canons. The priories were headed by a prior, with a sub-prior to perform his duties when he was absent (at Durham there was a third and at Canterbury and Winchester a third and a fourth prior). Responsibility for various aspects of the cathedral priory’s life rested with up to twenty-five ‘obedientiaries’ including the sacristan or sacrist, precentor and receiver, and their assistants or subordinates such as the sub-sacrist and the succentor.

In the case of a monastic foundation, the bishop was technically the 'abbot' of the 'monastery', but for day to day purposes his subordinate, the prior was the leader of the monks.


References

Hugh M. Thomas (2014). The Secular Clergy in England, 1066-1216. Oxford University Press. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-19-870256-6.

David Lepine (1995). A Brotherhood of Canons Serving God: English Secular Cathedrals in the Later Middle Ages. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85115-620-0.

SOUTHERN, R. W. (1960), THE PLACE OF ENGLAND IN THE TWELFTH-CENTURY RENAISSANCE. History, 45: 201–216. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-229X.1960.tb02299.x

British-history.ac.uk. 
British History Online: Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300.
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/catalogue.aspx?type=false&gid=39


John Britton. Cathedral Antiquities
History and antiquities of : 
v. 1. Canterbury. 1821. York. 1819
v. 2. Salisbury. 1814. Norwich. 1816. Oxford. 1821
v. 3. Winchester. 1817. Litchfield. 1820. Hereford. 1831
v. 4. Wells. 1824. Exeter. 1826. Worcester. 1835
v. 5. Peterborough. 1828. Gloucester. 1829. Bristol. 1830
v. 6. Bath Abbey Church


John Britton (1836). Winchester, Lichfield, and Hereford. Volume III. Cathedrals of Winchester, Coventry and Lichfield: M. A. Nattali. pp. 9–.

Patrick Collinson; Nigel Ramsay; Margaret Sparks (1995). A history of Canterbury Cathedral. Oxford University Press.

Teresa Grace Frisch (1987). Gothic Art 1140-c. 1450: Sources and Documents. Gervase of Canterbury: University of Toronto Press. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-8020-6679-4.



 
 Francis Woodman (1981). The Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Peter Fergusson (2011). Canterbury Cathedral Priory in the Age of Becket. Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art. ISBN 978-0-300-17569-1.


William Woolnoth (1816). A graphical illustration of the metropolitan cathedral church of Canterbury  T. Cadell and W. Davies.



David Spear: Power, Patronage, and Personality in the Norman Cathedral Chapters 911-1204





Christopher Robert Cheney (1956). From Becket to Langton: English Church Government, 1170-1213. Manchester University Press.

William M. Johnston (2000). Encyclopedia of Monasticism: A-L. Cathedral Priories: Taylor & Francis. pp. 253–. ISBN 978-1-57958-090-2.

Ben Nilson (2001). Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-85115-808-2.

Joseph Jones (1858). Hereford, Cathedral and City: A Handbook for the Public Buildings, Antiquities, Castle Green ... and Other Places of Note in the Neighborhood. J. Jones. pp. 7–.

Robert Willis; Edmund Sharpe; John Louis Petit (1861). The architectural history of Chichester Cathedral. Mason.

William Edward Dickson (13 May 2012). Ely Cathedral. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-286-56961-0.
http://archive.org/details/elycathedral00dickiala

David James Stewart (1868). On the Architectural History of Ely Cathedral. J. Van Voorst.
Ely cathedral (1853). Hand-book to the cathedral church of Ely.

Philip Freeman (1873). The architectural history of Exeter cathedral.

History and antiquities of Lincoln: Lincoln cathedral. Brookes and Vibert. 1865

Jesse Russell; Ronald Cohn (February 2012). Old Sarum Cathedral. Book on Demand. ISBN 978-5-512-24280-3.

The Illustrated Guide to Old Sarum & Stonehenge. Brown and Company. 1888.
http://www.amazon.co.uk/Illustrated-Guide-Old-Sarum-Stonehenge/dp/0766178897

William Dodsworth (verger.) (1814). An historical account of the episcopal see, and cathedral church, of Sarum. pp. 30–.

http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/old-sarum/

John Philip McAleer (1 January 1999). Rochester Cathedral, 604-1540: An Architectural History. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-4222-4.

Robert William Billings (1843). Architectural Illustrations and Description of the Cathedral Church at Durham. T. and W. Boone.

William Greenwell. Durham Cathedral, an Address Delivered September 24 1879. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-178-47186-1.
http://archive.org/details/durhamcathedral00gree 
http://archive.org/details/architecturalil00billgoog 

Everett U. Crosby (2003). Bishop and Chapter in Twelfth-Century England: A Study of the 'Mensa Episcopalis'. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-521-52184-0. 

Wikipedia References


Stanford E. Lehmberg (2005). English Cathedrals: A History. Hambledon and London. ISBN 978-1-85285-453-9.

Nigel Yates; Paul A. Welsby (1996). Faith and Fabric: A History of Rochester Cathedral, 604-1994. Boydell & Brewer.  ISBN 978-0-85115-581-4.


 

General



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_former_cathedrals_in_England,_Wales_and_the_Isle_of_Man

Robert Odell Bork; William W. Clark; Abby McGehee (2011). New Approaches to Medieval Architecture. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-4094-2228-0. 

Province of Canterbury
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worcester_Cathedral


Draper, P.. (1997). Interpretations of the Rebuilding of Canterbury Cathedral, 1174-1186: Archaeological and Historical Evidence. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 56(2), 184–203. http://doi.org/10.2307/991283


'The cathedral of Salisbury: From the foundation to the fifteenth century', in A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 3, ed. R B Pugh and Elizabeth Crittall (London, 1956), pp. 156-183. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/wilts/vol3/pp156-183 


'Secular canons: Cathedral of St. Paul', in A History of the County of London: Volume 1, London Within the Bars, Westminster and Southwark, ed. William Page (London, 1909), pp. 409-433. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/london/vol1/pp409-433

'Colleges: The cathedral of Wells', in A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 2, ed. William Page (London, 1911), pp. 162-169. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/som/vol2/pp162-169

'Collegiate churches: York (including York Minster)', in A History of the County of York: Volume 3, ed. William Page (London, 1974), pp. 375-386. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/yorks/vol3/pp375-386


'Chichester cathedral: Historical survey', in A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 3, ed. L F Salzman (London, 1935), pp. 105-113.

Edward Hasted, 'History of the cathedral', in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 11 (Canterbury, 1800), pp. 306-383. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol11/pp306-383
 

Province of York

The ecclesiastical province of York almost coincides with the Danelaw territory and the Viking ruled areas of England prior to Canute. A large part of it was "harried" (reduced to waste land) by William the Conqueror.

D.M. Hadley (2001). The Northern Danelaw: Its Social Structure, c.800-1100. Chapter 5 Ecclesiastical Organization of Northern Danelaw: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 216–. ISBN 978-1-4411-6713-2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harrying_of_the_North



Francis Drake (1736). Eboracum: or, The history and antiquities of the city of York,  Church of York: Printed by W. Bowyer for the author. pp. 536–.

Others [Abbeys with mitred abbots, defunct cathedrals and priories]




Northampton — St Andrew's Priory
Cluniac monks: dependent on La Charité founded 1093-1100;
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=40225

Map of British Isles showing Dioceses and Abbeys at the Time of the Death of Henry II
R. Foreville, L'Église et la royauté en Angleterre sous Henri II Plantagenêt (1154-1189), Paris, 1943



Anglia Sacra


 Ramirez, Edgar Brandon. (2014). The Canterbury Roll: A Viewer's Guide of the Twelve Typological Windows at Canterbury Cathedral. UC Riverside: Art History. Retrieved from: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1hg1612q

Emma Mason (1996). Westminster Abbey and Its People, C.1050-c.1216. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-85115-396-4.


William Somner (1640). The antiquities of Canterbury,  Thrale.

Nicolas Battely (1703). The antiquities of Canterbury: In two parts. The first part. Printed for R. Knaplock



Robert Willis (1845). The Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral. Longman

John Britton (1821). The History and Antiquities of the Metropolitical Church of Canterbury. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown.


James Dugdale (1819). The New British Traveller:. J. Robins & Company. pp. 127–.

Sarah Blick; Rita Tekippe (2004). Art and Architecture of Late Medieval Pilgrimage in Northern Europe and the British Isles: Texts. BRILL. pp. 1–. ISBN 90-04-12332-6.

Stephen Murray (2015). Plotting Gothic. University of Chicago Press.  ISBN 978-0-226-19180-5.

Dom David Knowles (1979). Religious Orders In England. Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29567-3.

Dom David Knowles (2004). The Monastic Order in England: A History of Its Development from the Times of St Dunstan to the Fourth Lateran Council 940-1216. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54808-3.

David Knowles (1979). Religious Orders. Volume I. Cambridge University Press.  ISBN 978-0-521-29566-6.
David Knowles (1979). Religious Orders. Volume II. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29567-3.
David Knowles (1979). The Religious Orders in England. Volume III. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29568-0.

David Charles Douglas (1964). William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England. University of California Press. pp. 329–. ISBN 978-0-520-00350-7.


David Charles Douglas (1964). William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England. University of California Press. pp. 326–. ISBN 978-0-520-00350-7.
...
Bishops and abbots were at once involved more closely than ever before in secular affairs, and in the case of the abbeys a division was normally made between the land of the abbot and that of the monastery, so that the abbot as a great feudal lord became removed from the life of his monks.
...

David Knowles (1979). Religious Orders. Chapter VI: The Monastic Adminstration: Cambridge University Press. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-521-29566-6.

Edward Hasted (1778), The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent:, author, pp. 145–

Abbot Gasquet, English Monastic Life, METHUEN & CO.
http://freepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wakefield/history/42614-h/42614-h.htm
https://archive.org/stream/englishmonastic00gasqgoog#page/n11/mode/1up


De praesulibus Angliae commentarius omnium episcoporum Francis Godwin

Thomas Tanner (1744). Notitia monastica: or, An account of all the abbies, priories, and houses of friers, heretofore in England and Wales; and also of all the colleges and hospitals founded before A.D. MDXL. William Bowyer, at the expense of the Society
https://archive.org/details/notitiamonastica00tann

 



An History of the Mitred Parliamentary Abbies, and Conventual Cathedral Churches: Shewing the Times of Their Respective Foundations, and what Alterations They Have Undergone. With Some Descriptions of Their Monuments, and Dimensions of Their Buildings, &c. Together with a Catalogue of Their Abbats, Priors, &c. To which are Annexed, Several Other Lists of the Principals of Divers Monasteries; the Number of Monks at the Surrender, and the Names of the Last Abbats, Priors, &c. who Signed the Same; as Far as They Have Come to Hand. With an Exact Account of Those Religious Men and Women, and Chantry Priests, Receiving Pensions Throughout England and Wales, An. 1553. A Work, Among Other Uses, Necessary to Give Light to Several Charters Sans Date; and Helpful to Such who Shall Treat of Families and Dignified Persons. For Whose Benefit are Subjoined Large Indexes. The Whole Extracted Out of Very Curious Manuscripts, &c. which Have Been Many Years Colecting by the Most Eminent Antiquaries; and Faithfully Published. W. Bowyer. 1718. pp. 1–.


An History of the Mitred Parliamentary Abbies, and Conventual Cathedral Churches: Shewing the Times of Their Respective Foundations, and what Alterations They Have Undergone. With Some Descriptions of Their Monuments, and Dimensions of Their Buildings, &c. Together with a Catalogue of Their Abbats, Priors, &c. To which are Annexed, Several Other Lists of the Principals of Divers Monasteries; the Number of Monks at the Surrender, and the Names of the Last Abbats, Priors, &c. who Signed the Same; as Far as They Have Come to Hand. With an Exact Account of Those Religious Men and Women, and Chantry Priests, Receiving Pensions Throughout England and Wales, An. 1553. A Work, Among Other Uses, Necessary to Give Light to Several Charters Sans Date; and Helpful to Such who Shall Treat of Families and Dignified Persons. For Whose Benefit are Subjoined Large Indexes. The Whole Extracted Out of Very Curious Manuscripts, &c. which Have Been Many Years Colecting by the Most Eminent Antiquaries; and Faithfully Published. W. Bowyer. 1719. pp. 1–.


by Haddan, Arthur West, 1816-1873, ed; Stubbs, William, 1825-1901, joint ed; Wilkins, David, 1685-1745


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