Saturday, 28 September 2013

Cistercians, Pontigny Abbey and Becket's Exile at Pontigny Abbey

Some of the most important events concerning the history of this case take place when Becket is an exile at the abbey of Pontigny December 1164 - November 1166.

Pontigny was to gain a hallowed tradition of sheltering  renowned but persecuted English churchmen, most notably Saint Anselm and Saint Thomas Becket, and later archbishop Stephen Langton, and archbishop Edmund of Canterbury.

Chartres Cathedral: Becket Leaving Pontigny

Cistercians


Janet Burton; Janet E. Burton; Julie Kerr (2011). The Cistercians in the Middle Ages. Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-667-4.

Sharla Race (2011). Aelred of Rievaulx: Cistercian Monk and Medieval Man: A Twelfth Century Life. Sharla Race. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-907119-02-6.

Isaac of Stella, the Cistercians and the Thomas
Becket Controversy: A Bibliographical and
Contextual Study
Travis D. Stolz
Marquette University

Actes Du Colloque International de Sedieres. Robert-Henri Bautier: Les premières relations entre le monastère de Pontigny et la royauté anglaise: Editions Beauchesne. pp. 41–.

Clairmarais
Richard Cumpston Jones. Saint-Omer and the British Connection. Lulu.com. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-1-4478-7482-9. 

Pontigny Abbey

A Cistercian abbey which was founded in 1114 .








 

Becket in Exile at Pontigny Abbey 1164-66

a) Escape from Northampton 1164

After his flight and escape from the trial at Northampton, and crossing the Englsih Channel, Becket landed in Flanders, North France, and eventually reached the pope, who was also living in exile in Sens.

William Holden Hutton (1910)
Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. p. 109-11
Pitman London

Kay Brainerd Slocum (January 2004). Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. University of Toronto Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-8020-3650-6.

b) Resident at Pontigny Abbey

Following discussions with the pope, and at the pope's recommendation, but also, it seems, chosen by Becket himself,  Becket found refuge at the Abbey of Pontigny amongst the Cistercians. During these first years in exile (from November 1164 to Spring 1166) he devoted his time to learning canon law. As monks the Cistercians were a severely ascetic order who insisted on a very strict observance of their Rule, which perhaps suited Becket. Perhaps Becket was inspire by Anselm, who had been a Cistercian before becoming archbishop.

pp. 121-133 November 1164 to Spring 1166

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 153–.

Henry Hart Milman (1860). Life of Thomas à Becket. Sheldon & company. pp. 113–27

c) King Henry's Revenge Christmas 1164

In December 1164 King Henry became malevolently spiteful. He removed the benefices paid to Becket's clerics from those who had fled into exile with him, including Herbert of Boseham, and demanded payments from those bishops who had stood surety for him at his trial at Northampton.  And also sent a huge number of Becket own extended family and servants into exile. He gave this programme of reprisal to Ranulf de Broc to oversee, who ruthlessly executed the king's order. The archbishopric of Canterbury had become void following Becket's flight and consequently passed into the king's hands. Ranulf de Broc was given the custodes of it to farm on the king's behalf.

Ancient Hampshire Families: BrocThe Herald and Genealogist. 1870. pp. 508–.

Thomas (Becket); Christian de Wulf (1682). Epistolae Et Vita Divi Thomae Martyris Et Archi-Episcopi Cantuariensis. Fricx. pp. 127–.

Thomas Madox (1711). "Page 406 Footnote q:"The History and Antiquities of the Exchequer of the Kings of England ... Knaplock. pp. 406–.

Constitutions of Clarendon: Writ of Henry II addressed to the sheriffs of England (December 1164)

Thómas Saga Erkibyskups: A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket, in Icelandic, with English ... (Volume 1) - Eiríkur Magnússon
Chapter 48 p. 319-26 Of the Hardness of King Henry
Chapter 54 p. 347-353 The Kin of Thomas are Banished

Gourde, Leo T. (1943), "An Annotated Translation of the Life of St. Thomas Becket by William Fitzstephen".
pp. 99-101

James J. Spigelman (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. James Spigelman. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-646-43477-3.

Kay Brainerd Slocum (January 2004). Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. University of Toronto Press. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-8020-3650-6.

James Craigie Robertson (1859). Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. pp. 157–.

Michael Green (2004). St Thomas Becket. Gracewing Publishing. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-85244-590-7.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Michael Staunton (7 December 2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. Manchester University Press. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.

d) Papal Legate

The Pope makes Becket Papal Legate to England 24th April 1166

Frances Andrews; Brenda M. Bolton; Christoph Egger; Constance M. Rousseau (1 January 2004). Pope, church, and city [electronic resource]: essays in honour of Brenda M. Bolton. BRILL. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-90-04-14019-6

Michael Green (2004). St Thomas Becket. Gracewing Publishing. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-85244-590-7.

James J. Spigelman (2004). Becket & Henry: The Becket Lectures. James Spigelman. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-0-646-43477-3

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 1-175. Oxford University Press. pp. 270–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1. Retrieved 26 September 2013.Text "Letter 69" ignored (help)

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). "Letter 71".  Pope Alexander to Archbishop Thomas of Canterbury (Lateran 2 May 1166) The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 1-175. Oxford University Press. pp. 278–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.

Kay Brainerd Slocum (January 2004). Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. University of Toronto Press. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-8020-3650-6

Martha G. Newman (1996). The Boundaries of Charity: Cistercian Culture and Ecclesiastical Reform, 1098-1180. Stanford University Press. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-0-8047-2512-5.

e) Becket's Letters to King Henry

During 1166 Becket writes three letters to king Henry, threatening him with ecclesiastical punishments. Henry considers them as sermonising him and ignores them.  Each letter represents in turn an escalation of Becket's case.

Loqui de Deo (ca April 1166)

Desiderio desideravi (Late May to Early June 1166)

Exspectans exspectavi (After 12th June 1166)

f) Excommunications at Vézelay

On Whitsun 1166, at Vézelay, Becket excommunicated several of Henry's advisors and ministers, including John of Oxford, Richard of Ilchester, Richard de Lucy, and Jocelin de Balliol. He stopped short of excommunicating the king himself.

Excommunications at Vézelay

Letter from his Suffragan Bishops: Quae Vestro (1166)


Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Actes Du Colloque International de Sedieres. (Aout 1973) Editions Beauchesne.

Actes Du Colloque International de Sedieres. Editions Beauchesne. pp. 135–.


Saint Thomas (à Becket); Herbert (of Bosham); Jacques-Paul Migne (1854). S. Thomæ Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi et martyris nec non Herberti de Boseham clerici ejus a secretis opera omnia. Excudebatur et venit apud J.-P. Migne. pp. 1–.








Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 176-329. Oxford University Press. pp. 1369–. ISBN 978-0-19-820893-8.

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 1-175. Oxford University Press. pp. 497–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.

Saint Thomas (à Becket) (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 1-175. Letter 115 Oxford University Press. pp. 557–. ISBN 978-0-19-820892-1.  = MTB 246



More References


Anne J. Duggan (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters 176-329. Volume II. Epistola 181: Clarendon Press. pp. 814–. ISBN 978-0-19-820893-8.

Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. University of California Press. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9.

Kay Brainerd Slocum (January 2004). Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. University of Toronto Press. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-8020-3650-6.


https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1_1FAQAAIAAJ
John Morris - 1885
In the September following, on Holy Cross Day (Sept. 14, 1166), the general chapter of the Cistercian Order was held as usual. The King sent them a letter ... After the three days of the chapter, Gilbert, Abbot of Citeaux, the Bishop of Pavia, who had once been a monk of the order, and several other Abbots, came to Pontigny ...

Analecta Cisterciensia. v.27-28 1971-72. pp. 64-80
Archbishop Thomas Becket and the Cistercian Order
by Bennett D. Hill

Travis D. Stolz
Marquette University Dissertations 2009

Actes Du Colloque International de Sedieres. Marie-Anselme Dimier; Thomas Becket et les Cisterciens: Editions Beauchesne. pp. 49–

Herbert of Bosham: Materials for History of Thomas Becket III pp.397-398.


Martin Aurell (2007). The Plantagenet Empire, 1154-1224. Longman. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-582-78439-0.


Léopold Delisle (1869). Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France. Victor Palmé. pp. 129–.

Waast B. Henry (1839). Histoire de l'Abbaye de Pontigny, Ordre de Citeaux. Maillefer. pp. 48–.

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